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Arkansas's First People

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As part of American Experience's We Shall Remain, Arkansas's First People is a 5-part series featuring unique perspectives on American Indian cultural legacy, archeological data, and interviews with modern tribal representatives of those who had and still have an impact on Arkansas.

Episodes

Part 1: Ancestors

Early people known as Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian Indians begin the story of this land with the objects and artwork they left behind. Tools made of stone and animal bones surface in farm fields and on riverbanks. Beautiful clay vessels that have stayed intact for centuries and curious pictures painted and pecked onto cave walls reveal the ingenuity, intelligence and humor of people who came before. As the descendants of these people begin to settle and form permanent homes, the evidence of their societies laid claim to magnificent monuments such as the sky-reaching mounds dotting Arkansas.

Part 2: Nations

As European explorers continue to cross the Mississippi River, out of the mysterious past of the mound builders, diverse, communal groups known as the Caddo, the Quapaw and the Osage live in the mountains, valleys and plains of Arkansas. The modern descendants of these great people explain their tribal views and cultures.

Part 3: Removal

Because of the ever-expanding United States of America, indigenous tribes were forced to move to what is dubbed ?Indian Territory? by way of the heartbreaking, multi-route Trail of Tears. This time of removal is still evident along the geography of the southeast. In the conversations of the tribes affected and preservation groups maintaining the routes, the memory of this greedy period of United States history is kept alive so that it may never happen again.

Part 4: Warriors

While trying to survive during the conflict of the Union and the Confederacy, Indian militias are formed to fight in Civil War battles such as Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern). Little is said in textbooks about this involvement. In times of military combat, Native people have always been at the forefront of volunteering for the United States military regardless of past aggression.

Part 5: Preservation

Myths about American Indians are still present. Advertising and entertainment are filled with the mysterious and ridiculous. Indian nations, academic scholars, park interpreters and civic organizations debunk the myths and show the true world of the Native people who are still part of the land we call Arkansas. They are your family, neighbors, friends and co-workers.


We Shall Remain

The Arkansas Educational Television Network (AETN) was chosen, with several other PBS member stations from across the country, to create a community coalition to help tell the history of the indigenous people of the United States of America. The Arkansas's First People Advisory Council includes the Arkansas Archeological Survey, the Sequoyah Research Center, Arkansas State Parks, Arkansas Tech University Museum, the American Indian Center of Arkansas, and the Trail of Tears Association.

In April 2009, American Experience's We Shall Remain and these special groups of Native peoples, scholars, and civic organizations will bring American Indian perspective to real stories from our nation's past and present through different types of media, including a library initiative; television and radio broadcasts; various print promotions and community events. This is the first project of its kind and is unmatched in its ambition.

Arkansas's First People will be the Natural State's contribution to this unique program. This multi-faceted project will give voice to Native peoples who had and still have an impact on Arkansas. The stories span pre-contact mound cultures to the sovereign nations who now reside in neighboring Oklahoma. Images of cultural legacy, archeological data, and interviews with modern tribal representatives will change stereotypes of these diverse peoples.

Through AETN and the Arkansas Department of Education's Internet Delivered Education for Arkansas Schools (www.arkansasideas.org), Arkansas teachers will be able to access an online professional development course using the broadcast episodes of Arkansas's First People, extra video clips, gallery images, virtual tours and a resource list. Links to the individual American Indian tribal Web sites will also be available. All of these components will be unique supplements to classroom instruction for Arkansas students.

AETN will hold special community engagement events for Arkansas's First People and We Shall Remain. These will include premiere screenings, an atrium exhibit, a Native writer book program and workshops. Each of these events will have components designed to stimulate the viewer's imagination, connect to the content and provide a new way of seeing Native people. This project is alive in the sense that with the use of these different elements, it will make the viewer want to investigate further.


Resources

Historic Arkansas Indian Nations

The Caddo Nation, Quapaw Tribe of Oklahoma and the Osage Nation lived in Arkansas prior to their forced removal by the United States government.

American Indian Nations

Arkansas Agencies and Organizations

Arkansas state and national agencies and non-profit organizations have committed themselves to restoring and maintaining the heritage of Arkansas?s First People.

National Agencies and Organizations

These national agencies are curators of many of our national treasures that portray the history of Native Peoples.

Virtual Tours


Transcript

♪ ♪ TALES FROM ARKANSAS' PAST HAVE BEEN AS RICH AND VARIED AS ITS PEOPLE. FAMILY STORIES, HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS, FOLKLORE AND SCHOLARLY EVALUATIONS ALL PLAY A PART IN HISTORY. OUR EARLIEST ANCESTORS HAD NAMES NOT EASILY RECOGNIZED, NOT EASILY SPOKEN: THE PALEO, ARCHAIC, WOODLAND, AND MISSISSIPPIAN INDIANS. THEIR STORIES START WITH THE OBJECTS AND ARTWORK THEY LEFT BEHIND INGENIUS TOOLS AND UNIQUE POTTERY SURFACE AFTER BEING BURIED FOR CENTURIES. SKY-REACHING MOUNDS DOT THE ARKANSAS LANDSCAPE. CURIOUS PICTURES PAINTED AND PECKED ON TO ROCK SURFACES REVEAL THE INTELLIGENCE AND HUMOR OF ARKANSAS' FIRST PEOPLE.

[SINGING]. ARCHEOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF MATERIAL THINGS, AND PLACES WHERE THE MARK OF MANKIND IS VISIBLE. IT DISCOVERS TRACES OF STRUCTURES FROM VILLAGES AND IMAGES LEFT ON ROCKS. ARCHEOLOGISTS SEARCH FOR PATTERNS THAT SPEAK OF ANCIENT PEOPLE'S LIVES. VERY FEW THINGS FROM THE PAST CAN, WITHOUT QUESTION, IDENTIFY A SPECIFIC TRIBE OR CULTURE. EXPERTS SAY THEY CAN ONLY FORM HYPOTHESES. "UNFORTUNATELY, THE HISTORIES THAT HAVE BEEN WRITTEN AND THE AVERAGE CITIZEN'S UNDERSTANDING OF WHO CAME BEFORE THE ANGLO-EUROPEAN SETTLERS AFTER THIS, THE UH, LOUISIANA PURCHASE, AND WHAT THEIR LIVES WERE LIKE IS STILL PRETTY VAGUE, AND UNFORTUNATELY, IN THE PAST HAS SUFFERED FROM SOME IMAGINATION RATHER THAN SEARCH OF ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS OR ENCOUNTERS WITH THE DESCENDANTS OF THOSE PEOPLE. IN ADDITION TO THAT, AVERAGE CITIZENS HAVE A NUMBER OF STEREOTYPES IN THEIR HEAD ABOUT AMERICAN INDIAN PEOPLE. AND SOME OF THAT GETS MIXED UP WITH THEIR EXPECTATIONS OF THE NATIVE PEOPLE WHO ONCE LIVED IN ARKANSAS. STORIES OF AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE IN ARKANSAS BEGIN WITH ANCIENT PEOPLE WHO SPREAD OUT ACROSS THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT; SOME FILTERING DOWN INTO THE MID-SOUTH AS THEY FOLLOWED WILD GAME ALONG THE RIVERS AND PLATEAUS. THE ONLY NAME WE KNOW THESE PEOPLE BY IS PALEO.

"PALEO MEANS OLD AND PALEO-INDIAN REFERS TO A SPECIFIC TIME PERIOD FROM 13,500 YEARS OR SO AGO, UP UNTIL ABOUT 10,500 YEARS AGO." "THEIR DAY-TO-DAY ACTIVITIES PROBABLY CONSISTED OF A GREAT DEAL OF PREPARATION AND MANUFACTURING THINGS, NOT SO MUCH THE STONE TOOLS BECAUSE THEY DON'T TAKE SO LONG TO MAKE. BUT THINGS LIKE THEIR SPEER SHAFTS, CLOTHING, WE KNOW THEY HAD VERY WELL-TAILORED CLOTHING BECAUSE THESE PEOPLE CAME FROM AN AREA IN ASIA WHERE IT WAS EXTREMELY COLD AND WE KNOW THEY PROBABLY HAD REALLY WELL-PREPARED CLOTHING THAT WAS TAILORED, NOT JUST SOME BUNCH OF SPANISH MOSS THROWN ON THEIR BODIES. WE KNOW THEY HAD KIDS AND HAD TO RAISE THEIR KIDS. AND THEY'RE TEACHING THEIR KIDS ALL THE TIME HOW TO DO THINGS, JUST LIKE WE DO TODAY.

CHILD, OR ADULT, IN ORDER TO DO A JOB, TOOLS PLAY A PART. ARKANSAS HAS PLENTY OF RESOURCES AND THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS ARE FULL OF STONE USED IN THE EARLY TECHNOLOGY OF ARKANSAS' FIRST PEOPLE. THE COOL, GLASSY SURFACE OF NOVACULITE WAS CHIPPED AND MAKED INTO EVERYTHING FROM SPEER POINTS TO AX HEADS, USED FOR HUNTING AND EVERY DAY CHORES.

WELL, FLINT KNAPPING IS A WORLDWIDE PHENOMENON. IT HAPPENED EVERYWHERE THAT THERE WAS A ROCK AND ROCK THAT WOULD BREAK IN THE RIGHT WAY TO PRODUCE A SHARP EDGE. AND IT WAS PROBABLY DISCOVERED VERY QUICKLY THAT THE SHARP EDGES OF FLINT COULD CUT MEAT, VEGETABLE MATTER, PLANTS, AND OTHER THINGS THAT HAD TO BE CUT PROBABLY BEFORE WITH A BONE OR JUST BY SMASHING OR GRINDING OR SOME OTHER PRIMITIVE METHOD. BUT WHEN YOU FLINT KNAP, YOU'RE TAKING A ROCK THAT'S HIGH IN SILICA, WHICH IS MUCH LIKE GLASS, AND YOU'RE REMOVING SMALL FLAKES AND LARGE FLAKES FROM IT IN A STRUCTURED WAY TO SHAPE IT.

MAKING TOOLS FOR CHORES ISN'T THE ONLY THING WE HAVE IN COMMON WITH OUR EARLY ANCESTORS. IMAGES ARE UNIVERSAL FORMS OF SELF-EXPRESSION. HERE IN THE ARKANSAS RIVER VALLEY, SYMBOLS HAVE BEEN FOUND IN CAVES AND ON ROCK LEDGES. SOME EXPERTS AGREE THAT THE OZARK PLATEAU MAY HOLD IMPORTANT SYMBOLS OF PAST CULTURES AND EVEN THE DOODLING OF ANCIENT ARTISTS.

SOME PEOPLE THINK ROCK ART IS THE DESIGN AND ARTWORK THAT'S ON RECORD ALBUMS PRODUCED BY ROCK AND ROLL ARTISTS, BUT ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND ARCHEOLOGISTS USE THE TERM TO DESCRIBE IMAGES THAT PEOPLE PAINT ONTO NATURAL ROCK SURFACES OR CARVED IN OR ENGRAVE ON NATURAL ROCK SURFACES. THE PAINTED IMAGES ARE CALLED PICTOGRAPHS AND THIS CARVED OR ENGRAVED OR PECKED IMAGES ARE CALLED PETROGLYPHS.

THE TECHNIQUE DOESN'T LEND ITSELF TO VERY FINE ARTISTIC APPLICATION. MANY OTHER NATIVE AMERICAN ART FORMS ALLOW FOR MUCH FINER DETAIL. ROCK ART PAINTING OR CARVING IS A SOMEWHAT CRUDER MECHANISM. SO THE IMAGES ARE MORE GENERALIZED. THEY'RE OFTEN QUITE NOT AS ATTRACTIVE, BUT THEY'RE VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY DO REFLECT SOME VERY INTERESTING MOTIFS THAT PROVIDE GLIMPSES INTO THE WORLDS THAT ANCIENT PEOPLES SAW OR IMAGINED. SOME OF THOSE WORLDS HAD SMALL RISES OR OBVIOUS TOWERING HILLS POPPING UP ALONG THE FLAT EXPANSE OF THE GRAND PRAIRIE AND MISSISSIPPI DELTA. MOUNDS BUILT BY ARKANSAS'S FIRST PEOPLE, ARE EARTHEN PYRAMIDS, NEWER GENERATIONS HAVE WONDERED IF THEY WERE USED FOR PRACTICAL REASONS OR TO REACH A HIGHER POWER. "HI EVERYBODY, MY NAME IS AMY AND I'M A PARK INTERPRETER HERE AT TOLTEC MOUNDS ARCHEOLOGICAL STATE PARK. THE FIRST THING YOU NEED TO KNOW IS THAT TOLTEC IS A MISNOMER. THE TOLTEC INDIANS FROM MEXICO DID NOT COME UP HERE AND BUILD THESE MOUNDS. THE PEOPLE WHO DID BUILD THESE MOUNDS WE CALL THE PLUM BAYOU CULTURE. THEY BUILT EIGHTEEN MOUNDS IN TOTAL. TODAY, YOU WILL ONLY SEE THREE ORIGINAL MOUNDS." "THE PLUM BAYOU CULTURE PRIMARILY LIVED AT THE TIME OF THE LATE WOODLAND PERIOD. AT THIS TIME, NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES STARTED MAKING POTTERY, BUILDING BURIAL MOUNDS, DOMESTICATING WILD PLANTS AND MAKING CEREMONIAL AND SOCIAL CENTERS, SUCH AS THIS ONE AT TOLTEC."

NATIVE BUILDERS USED BASKETS OF DIRT TO FORM THE LAYERS OF MOUNDS. OVER TIME NEW LAYERS WERE ADDED. IT'S BELIEVED THAT THE NEW LAYERS MAY HAVE BEEN USED TO BURY THEIR DEAD, COVER UP LEFT OVER SCRAPS FROM MEALS OR WORK, OR SOME SEEM TO MARK A SPECIFIC POINT INSIDE THE SITE WITH A SPECIFIC PURPOSE. MOUNDS AT TOLTEC AND OTHER SITES ARE UNIQUE IN HEIGHT, SHAPE, AND USE.

THERE'S DIFFERENT KINDS OF MOUNDS. THE FIRST TYPE ARE VERY LARGE MOUNDS THAT ARE FLAT ON TOP. MOUNDS THAT THEY HAD LIVED ON OR HAD CEREMONIAL STRUCTURES BUILT. THE SECOND TYPE ARE CEREMONIAL MOUNDS. MOUNDS SUCH AS S AND H. H IS A KEY MOUND IN THEIR CALENDAR SYSTEM. IF YOU WERE TO STAND ON MOUND H AND THE SUN SET IN A CERTAIN PLACE, THEY KNEW WHEN TO PLANT AND HARVEST THEIR CROPS. IF YOU WERE TO STAND ON MOUND H AND THE SUN SET OVER MOUND B THAT WOULD BE THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. IF THE SUN SET OVER MOUND A, THAT WOULD BE THE FALL OR SPRING EQUINOX. AND IF THE SUN SET OVER MOUND S, THAT IS THE WINTER SOLSTICE. NOT ONLY DID THEY HAVE THE SUNSETS, THEY ALSO HAD THE SUNRISES. IF YOU STAND ON MOUND A AND THE SUN ROSE OVER MOUND B THAT WOULD BE THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. IF THE SUN ROSE BETWEEN C AND G, THAT WOULD BE THE WINTER SOLSTICE. AND IF THE SUN ROSE OVER MOUND H, THAT WOULD BE THE FALL OR SPRING EQUINOX. E IS ALSO AN IMPORTANT MOUND. IF YOU WERE TO STAND ON MOUND E AT NIGHT AND LOOK OVER MOUND A, YOU WOULD FIND THE NORTH STAR. THE THIRD TYPE OF MOUND IS LIKE MOUND C. IT HAS BEEN KNOWN TO BE A BURIAL MOUND. BURIAL MOUNDS ARE ROUND OR CONICAL ON TOP. HERE AT TOLTEC, MOUND C IS MORE LIKE A MYSTERIOUS MOUND. WE HAVE FOUND HUMAN REMAINS AROUND MOUND C, BUT NOT ON MOUND C. YOU MAY BE THINKING, "WHY DON'T YOU EXCAVATE MOUND C AND FIND OUT?" THE ANSWER IS, CONGRESS PASSED A LAW CALLED THE NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION ACT. SINCE THEY PASSED THIS LAW, ARCHEOLOGISTS CAN NO LONGER DIG FOR HUMAN REMAINS. TOLTEC MOUNDS IS A SITE FOR REPATRIATION. ONE OF THE ONLY ONES IN ARKANSAS."

REPATRIATION IS THE REBURIAL OF HUMAN REMAINS IN A SACRED OR PROTECTED PLACE. BECAUSE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT AND FARMING, AMERICAN INDIAN REMAINS SURFACE AND ARE AT RISK OF BEING "FARMING WAS THE LARGEST COMPONENT OF THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD. THESE PEOPLE PRODUCED HUNDREDS OF ACRES OF CORN AND SQUASH AND BEANS AND SOME TOOLS THAT THEY USED WERE THESE MASSIVE CHERT HOLES BEHIND ME HERE, AND IT'S ALSO WELL-REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TRADE NETWORK. WE HAVE MILL CREEK CHERT REPRESENTED HERE FROM SOUTHERN ILLINOIS; WE HAVE DOVER CHERT FROM WESTERN TENNESSEE. ALSO, REPRESENTATIVE IS SIDE NOTCHED HOLES AND GRINDING STONES; THEY ALSO MADE EFFIGY VESSELS NOT ONLY OF HUMANS BUT ALSO REPRESENTING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, AS WELL AS, EFFIGY VESSELS OF ANIMALS AND FISH; FLORA AND FAUNA THAT WAS IMPORTANT TO THEM IN THEIR EVERYDAY LIVES. OTHER ASPECTS OF THE TRADE NETWORK THAT EXISTED WERE ITEMS OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT. WE HAVE A WONDERFUL COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM THE GULF COAST, UH, COPPER BRACELETS, STONE GORGETS, THIS WAS ALL AN IMPORTANT PART OF MISSISSIPPIAN LIFESTYLE." THE MOUND BUILDER SETTLEMENTS ARE SCATTERED ACROSS EASTERN ARKANSAS. THESE ARTIFACTS ARE TRACES OF PAST LIVES THAT GIVE MORE CLUES TO THE KIND OF PEOPLE WHO LIVED ALONG THE RIVERS. NODENA, A LATE MISSISSIPPIAN SITE, IS FAMOUS FOR ITS RED AND WHITE SWIRLED CLAY POTTERY. HUMAN HEAD EFFIGIES, FOUND IN THIS AREA, MAY BE ANCIENT PORTRAITS. "HUMAN EFFIGY VESSELS, EFFIGY VESSELS IN GENERAL, IS A LIKENESS OF A PERSON OR AN ANIMAL OR A MYTHOLOGICAL CREATURE OR DIETY. THEY WERE VERY IMPORTANT TO THE MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD PEOPLE. IT'S LIKE PAYING TRIBUTE TO WHAT WAS IMPORTANT TO THEM IN THEIR CEREMONIAL OR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OR CULTURAL BELIEF SYSTEMS AND IT ALSO GOES BACK AND TIES INTO ARCHEOLOGISTS HAS TWO INTERPRETATIONS, MOST COMMON INTERPRETATIONS WITH WHAT THIS EFFIGY VESSEL REPRESENTS: ONE IS THAT THIS COULD HAVE BEEN CERTAINLY SOMEONE OF STATUS UH, POSSIBLY IN THE CHIEFDOM OF THE VILLAGE, THE HEREDITARY RULE, THE HIERARCHY. THE OTHER INTERPRETATION IS THAT THE EFFIGY VESSEL COULD REPRESENT THAT OF A WAR TROPHY. IN THE DE SOTO CHRONICLES IT INTERPRETS FOR US UM, HIS ENTRADA COMING INTO DIFFERENT VILLAGE SITES AFTER WARFARE OR BATTLE THAT ENEMIES' HEADS WERE ON POLES. SO THOSE ARE TWO COMMON BELIEFS. THIS IS RECOGNIZED AS ONE OF THE PREMIERE EFFIGY HEAD VESSELS KNOWN TO EXIST ON PUBLIC DISPLAY." THERE IS EVIDENCE OF SPANISH EXPLORER HERNANDO DE SOTO AND HIS MEN ENCOUNTERING ONE OF THOSE VILLAGE SITES ALONG THE BANKS OF THE ST. FRANCIS RIVER. "PARKIN WAS A NATIVE AMERICAN VILLAGE SITE THAT WAS OCCUPIED FROM AT LEAST ABOUT 1000 A.D. UP UNTIL AFTER THE TIME OF DE SOTO, AND IT'S THE FIRST PLACE IN ARKANSAS WHERE WE HAVE THE NAME OF A NATIVE AMERICAN FROM ARKANSAS, WHICH WAS CASQUI. IT'S ALSO THE FIRST PLACE IN ARKANSAS WHERE WE HAVE DEFINITE CONTACT BETWEEN EUROPEANS AND NATIVE AMERICANS. ALSO, THE FIRST PLACE IN ARKANSAS WHERE WE HAVE RECORD OF A CROSS BEING CONSTRUCTED AND ERECTED AND OF CATHOLIC MASS BEING SAID." "WHEN THE DE SOTO EXPEDITION LANDED IN FLORIDA IN 1539, THEY HAD ABOUT OH, SIX HUNDRED OR SO MEMBERS OF THE EXPEDITION AND THEY ENDED UP TRAVELLING AROUND THE WHOLE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS. AFTER TWO YEARS, THEY MADE IT ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND THERE'S A LOT OF DEBATE ABOUT WHERE DE SOTO WENT AT DIFFERENT TIMES AND WE'LL PROBABLY NEVER KNOW FOR SURE THE EXACT ROUTE, BUT WE KNOW VERY CLEARLY WHEN THEY CROSSED THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BECAUSE BY FAR IT WAS THE LARGEST RIVER THEY CROSSED AND IT WAS A REAL HEADACHE FOR THEM TO GET ACROSS IT. AFTER THEY CROSSED THAT RIVER, WE'RE CERTAIN THAT THEY WERE IN WHAT IS NOW ARKANSAS... AND ALSO, WE HAVE ARTIFACTS THAT WE ARE CERTAIN CAME FROM THE DE SOTO EXPEDITION. THEY COULDN'T HAVE COME FROM ANYWHERE ELSE. " JOURNAL ENTRIES FROM THE DESOTO EXPEDITION SHOW THAT THEY MAY HAVE CONSIDERED CASQUI'S VILLAGE TO BE AN ADVANCED CIVILIZATION WHERE PEOPLE LED ORGANIZED, ABUNDANT LIVES. "THE MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE WAS BUILT UPON THE FOUNDATION OF RIVERS AND RIVER TRADE, AND HERE AT PARKIN, THE CASQUI VILLAGE WAS NO DIFFERENT. EVERY ASPECT OF THEIR DAILY LIFE WOULD HAVE INVOLVED WITH THE RIVER. WHETHER IT BE HUNTING AND FISHING, UM, SENDING A SCOUTING PARTY FOR DEFENSE, AGRICULTURE, WATERING, BATHING, POTTERY, EVERY SINGLE THING THEY DID REVOLVED AROUND THE ST. FRANCIS RIVER. AND THE ST. FRANCIS RIVER WAS VERY IMPORTANT NOT JUST TO THE VILLAGE OF CASQUI, BUT TO MANY OTHER PEOPLE AS WELL. WHEN DE SOTO VISITED THIS SITE IN 1541, HE COMMENTED THAT THE ST. FRANCIS RIVER WAS THE MOST CRYSTAL CLEAR RIVER HE HAD SEEN IN ALL OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. AND TODAY, IT MAY NOT LOOK LIKE THAT WAY, BUT AT THE TIME, IT WAS PRISTINE AND WITH THIS RESPONSIBILITY THAT THEY HAD OF LIVING HERE IN THIS AREA, CAME A LOT OF NEGATIVE ATTENTION, AS WELL. THEY DID RECEIVE THE BENEFITS OF HAVING SUCH AN EXCELLENT RIVER, BUT OTHERS WANTED IT AND THAT CAUSED DECLINE." WHETHER IT'S ENCOUNTERS WITH VISITORS FROM ANOTHER LAND OR NEIGHBORING VILLAGES, WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE, NOT ALL EVIDENCE OF HUMANITY DISAPPEARS. IT STAYS BEHIND IN THE PUZZLE PIECES LEFT FOUND IN THE DIRT AND IN THE HEARTS OF THE DESCENDANTS OF ARKANSAS'S FIRST PEOPLE.

[INDIAN DRUMS AND SINGING].

A CIVILIZATION REACHING BACK AS FAR AS 800 A.D. ROAMED THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS AND SPREAD INTO THE RED RIVER VALLEY. SEVERAL TRIBES KNOWN AS ONE: THE 'CADOHADACHO' BECAME WHO WE NOW KNOW AS THE CADDO. "PEOPLE ARE ALWAYS ASKING ME, YOU KNOW, WHO ARE THE CADDO AND WHERE DID THEY COME FROM AND WHERE ARE THEY NOW?" "THERE ARE NOW ABOUT 5000 ENROLLED MEMBERS OF THE CADDO INDIAN NATION OF OKLAHOMA.WE HAVE TO HAVE THE OKLAHOMA IN THERE BECAUSE ORIGINALLY, THE CADDO NATION RECOGNIZING THAT IN THE OLD TIMES YOU DIDN'T HAVE STATE BOUNDARIES, YOU DIDN'T Y O U D I D N 'T HAVE NATURAL BOUNDARIES, YOU HAD NATURE BOUNDARIES, RIVERS, STREAMS, MOUNTAIN, WOODS LIKE THE CROSSTIMBERS THAT RUN ACROSS THIS PART OF THE COUNTRY. IN THOSE DAYS, THE CADDO TERRITORY COVERED A VAST AREA THAT WOULD NOW BE CALLED SOUTHWESTERN ARKANSAS, NORTHWESTERN LOUISIANA, NORTHERN TEXAS, AND SOUTHEASTERN OKLAHOMA. SO YOU HAVE THIS BIG OVAL OF AN AREA THAT COVERED LAND FROM HUNTING GROUNDS AND VILLAGE SITES AS FAR UP AS NATCHITOCHES, LOUISIANA, ALMOST HOT SPRINGS ARKANSAS NATCHITOCHES, LOUISIANA, ALMOST OVER TO WACO, TEXAS, THEN UP AND AROUND OKLAHOMA ON THE SOUTHEASTERN CORNER THERE AND BACK UP." "CADDO PEOPLE AND OTHER TRIBAL PEOPLE BUILT MOUNDS, FOR MORE THAN ONE PURPOSE. ONE WAS TO USE THE MOUND AS A PLACE FOR SPIRITUAL COMMUNICATION. WITH THE CADDO. FOR INSTANCE, THERE WAS ALWAYS A BELIEF IN WHAT OTHERS MIGHT CALL A GOD. WHAT THE CADDO PEOPLE CALLED THE GREAT LEADER, UH, THE CADDO... [CADDO WORD]. AND, BECAUSE OF THAT BELIEF, THEN THERE WAS THIS, WAS AND STILL IS, A VERY STRONG BELIEF THAT AFTER YOU DO NOT LIVE ON THIS EARTH, YOU GO AND YOU GO AND YOU LIVE IN ANOTHER PLACE."

THEIR SPIRITUAL BELIEFS HEAVILY INFLUENCED THEIR CULTURE. THE CADDO MADE THE MOST OF THEIR SURROUNDINGS AND SKILLS. CADDO POTTERY WHETHER ANCIENT OR MODERN IS DISTINCT, UNIQUE AND TELLS US A LOT ABOUT THE TRIBE'S SKILLS. "IN 1992, I WENT TO SOME MUSEUMS, AND I SAW CADDO POTTERY, AND IT, AND IT BASICALLY IT WAS FOR THE FIRST TIME AMD I HAD IT IN THE BACK OF MY MIND, THAT WE, UH, DID POTTERY, WAY BACK IN TIME AND I DIDN'T SEE HOW IT RELATED TO ME. BUT WHAT I FOUND OUT WAS THAT THE, THE CADDO PEOPLE HAD WONDERFUL CLAY SOURCES. THEY, THERE WAS AN AMAZING VEIN OF CLAY THAT RAN THROUGH NATCHITOCHES UP THROUGH IDABEL, OKLAHOMA, INTO ARKANSAS. AND WE REALLY HAD THE BEST CLAY PROBABLY IN THE UNITED STATES." JERI REDCORN, MEMBER OF THE CADDO NATION, HAS SPENT MANY YEARS PRACTICING AND PRESERVING HER ANCESTORS' ART FORM. "THE CADDO, AT THAT TIME, WERE MAKING, AS THEY MADE CLAY, AS, A, AS THEY DEVELOPED THIS CLAY ART, THEY USED IT FOR CEREMONIES, THEY USED IT FOR DAILY, EVERYTHING DAILY, TO STORE SEEDS, TO STORE FOOD, TO COOK, AND, BUT AS A PART OF THEIR LIFE AND THEY MADE SOME, DEVELOPED SOME BEAUTIFUL, BEAUTIFUL DESIGNS. UM, THEY PROBABLY HAD THE MOST INTRICATE DESIGNS OF ANY TRIBE IN THE UNITED STATES AT THE TIME. AND THAT WOULD PROBABLY BE FROM 500 TO 700 YEARS AGO." JERI'S TRADITIONAL REPRODUCTIONS COULD BE USED TO STORE GARDEN SEEDS, BUT HER CREATIONS INSTEAD STORE 'MEMORIES'. "WHEN I FIRST CAME DOWN HERE, I JUST, I DID, I STOOD ON THE BANKS AND I FELT LIKE CRYING, BUT I ALSO FELT LIKE IT WAS A SIGNIFICANT STEP BECAUSE I COULD, I WAS STANDING ON THE LAND THAT MY GREAT-GREAT-GREAT GRANDMOTHERS HAD STOOD ON AND THEY HAD GATHERED CLAY, AND THE HAD MADE IT, AND, AND IT'S IMPORTANT. EARTH IS IMPORTANT. AND WATER IS IMPORTANT. AND THOSE TWO THINGS FORM THAT CLAY AND MAKE OUT OF IT A UTILITARIAN VESSEL THAT WE USED IN CEREMONIES, THAT WE USED IN OUR FUNERAL PRACTICES AND...JUST IN MANY WAYS. IT HAS BEEN SUCH A, UM, SUCH A WONDERFUL THING THAT I AM ABLE TO DO THIS."

BESIDES POTTERY, THE CADDO WERE KNOWN FOR THEIR BOW MAKING, WHICH USED NATIVE BOIS D'ARC OR OSAGE ORANGE WOOD.

[SAWING SOUND]. "YEAH, THIS WOOD IS FAIRLY

"YEAH, THIS CROOKED HERE, SO I, I'M GETTING WOOD IS FAIRLY CROOKED HERE, SO I, I'M GETTING SOME SPOTS HERE THAT ARE DIGGING IN SO BADLY, I MIGHT HAVE TO [SCRAPING] THIS, THIS TOOL HERE IS, IS WONDERFUL IN BEING ABLE TO WORK WITH WOOD LIKE THIS." "IN THE FAR OLD DAYS, THEY'D USE FLINT, AND I'M SURE THERE'S ALL KIND OF TRICKS IN BEING ABLE TO SET IT JUST RIGHT AND, AND USE, UH, LITTLE WEDGES AND SO FORTH TO TAKE OFF PIECES OF THIS. BUT THAT'S A HARD WAY TO GO. OBVIOUSLY THEY, THEY KNEW HOW TO DO IT, BUT WITHOUT THIS DRAW KNIFE, IT MUST HAVE BEEN, A, A WHOLE LOT HARDER TO DO." PHIL CROSS, JERI REDCORN'S BROTHER, WORKS EVERYDAY TO PRESERVE CADDO TRADITION. "IT'S ALL I'VE DONE ALL MY LIFE, YOU KNOW, WOULD BE DOING THIS 24/7 ALMOST, IN FACT, THAT'S IN FACT, I SHOT A DEER THIS MORNING WITH, UH, ONE OF MY OTHER BOWS LIKE THIS, AND A THIS IS A, THIS IS A WONDERFUL WAY TO TAKE A NATURAL RESOURCE, PUT SOME HUMAN ENERGY AND KNOWLEDGE AND TALENT INTO IT, AND GO DO A USEFUL EXERCISE, I SAY, IN HUNTING AND, UH, HARVESTING GAME, AND UH, BEING BACK CLOSE TO NATURE, OUR, OUR CADDO WAYS." DESPITE THE INEVITABLE PUSH TO REMOVE INDIAN TRIBES TO MAKE WAY FOR WHITE SETTLERS, THE CADDO MAINTAINED THEIR CUSTOMS BEYOND GENERATIONS OF FORCED ASSIMILATION TO MODERN-DAY PRIDE AND A MUCH DESERVED PLACE IN ARKANSAS AND AMERICAN HISTORY.

TO THE NORTH OF THE CADDO, THE OSAGE THRIVED. THIS WARRIOR TRIBE HUNTED AND CAMPED ALONG THE RIVERS AND STREAMS ACROSS THE OZARK PLATEAU.

WE HAVE A CLOSE CONNECTION TO THE NORTHERN HALF OF ARKANSAS, IN THE NORTHERN HALF OF ARKANSAS, YOU'RE GOING TO FIND THOSE WATERWAYS, THE WATER THAT FEEDS, UH, EUREKA SPRINGS, THE WHITE RIVER, BUFFALO RIVER. THOSE WATERWAYS, THE ARKANSAS RIVER, THAT, THAT FLOW IN, FLOW IN THROUGH THERE." THE OSAGE, LIKE THE CADDO, KNEW THAT THEIR LIVES DEPENDED ON WHAT NATURE PROVIDED.

IT'S THOSE WATERWAYS WHICH WE, WHICH WATER MEANS, IS LIFE, AND THAT'S WHERE WE, WE, OUR PEOPLE SITUATED THEMSELVES AND PROTECT THEMSELVES AROUND THOSE AREAS. SO, THE NORTHERN HALF OF ARKANSAS BEING WOODLANDS AND COVERAGE, COVER, UH, TO SOME DEGREE, OUT OF THE, THE BARE ELEMENTS OF A PRAIRIE, UH, THE ABUNDANCE OF FOOD IN THE WOODLANDS, UH, HAD SUSTAINABILITY FOR THEM. AND THEY, THEY COULD STAY IN THAT ENVIRONMENT."

THE OSAGE, STAYING CLOSE TO RIVERS AND STREAMS, WERE FRIENDLY TOWARD EUROPEAN TRAPPERS WHO PASSED THROUGH THESE AREAS. TRUE OF MANY AMERICAN INDIAN NAMES, THE WORD OSAGE IS THE EUROPEAN VERSION OF WHAT THE NATIVE PEOPLE CALLED THEMSELVES.

THE OSAGE NAME ITSELF IS, IS NOT OUR ORIGINAL NAME. THAT WAS, UH, EVOLUTION OF THE WAY THEY IDENTIFIED US, THE EARLY TRAPPERS, INTO THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE. THEY IDENTIFIED US UNDER, UH, THE NAME WAH ZHA ZHI, AND THAT GOT, UH ANGLICIZED NUMEROUS TIMES, TO WHERE IT WAS, UH, OUCHAGE AND THEN EVENTUALLY DOWN TO OSAGE. BUT OUR ORIGINAL NAME GOES BACK TO, AGAIN, THOSE WATERWAYS. ORIGINAL NAME, THE NI-U- KON-SKA, AND THAT AGAIN, THAT'S A REFERENCE TO THE WATER. THEY, THEY TRY TO TRANSLATE THAT, NI O GAH SKAH INTO, UM, CHILDREN OF THE MIDDLE WATER, AND THAT'S A GOOD TRANSLATION FOR IT. BEFORE THE NI-U-KON-SKA BECAME THE OSAGE, THEY WERE ONE PART OF A LARGE TRIBAL FAMILY.

THOSE PEOPLE, THAT ONE PERSON, THAT ONE PEOPLE BROKE INTO FIVE DIFFERENT TRIBES, AND THAT'S WHERE THE OSAGE, KAW, QUAPAW, PONCA, AND OMAHA WENT THEIR SEPARATE WAYS. THAT EVENT PUT THE OMAHA AND THE PONCA; THEY WENT UP THE MISSOURI TO THE NEBRASKA AREA, UP ON THE, THAT AREA THERE. AND, AND, UH, THE KAW AND THE OSAGE WENT TO THE WEST INTO WHERE WE WERE MISSOURI, ARKANSAS, KANSAS AND THAT, THAT ROAM. AND THE QUAPAW WENT SOUTH INTO ARKANSAS, AND SO THEY WERE DOWN IN THAT, THAT AREA, BUT WE DID BREAK APART. OF THAT PART, ONE PART OF THAT, WE BECAME THE OSAGE. AND WE KNOW WE WERE ONE PERSON OR ONE BODY AT ONE TIME BECAUSE OF OUR LANGUAGE. TO THE EAST OF THE OSAGE WERE THEIR COUSINS THE QUAPAW, THE DOWNSTREAM PEOPLE. THESE ARE THE PEOPLE FROM WHICH OUR STATE GETS ITS NAME ARCANSA, ARKANSAS, PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWIND. THE QUAPAW BEGAN A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE EUROPEANS THAT WOULD RESULT IN THE BUILDING OF A SHARED HISTORY. CARRIE WILSON, DAUGHTER OF CHARLES BANKS WILSON, AND THE MODEL OF WILSON'S 'PLAINS MADONNA', KNOWS THAT HISTORY WELL. "ARKANSAS POST WAS, IT'S THE ARKANSAS POST NATIONAL MEMORIAL DOWN AT, NEAR GILLETTE AND DUMAS, ARKANSAS, AND IT WAS THE FIRST STATE CAPITAL OF ARKANSAS, WHICH WAS THE FIRST STATE CAPITAL OF ARKANSAS BECAUSE IT WAS DOWN THERE WITH THE QUAPAW TRIBE. BUT IT WAS ALSO, UM, THE AREA WHERE TONTI SETTLED ARKANSAS. IT'S THE FIRST SETTLEMENT WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. AND THE IMPORTANT THING ABOUT THAT IS IT'S STILL THERE. THE REMAINS OF THAT CULTURE, THAT HISTORY, IS STILL THERE. AND WORKING WITH THE QUAPAW GRANT THROUGH THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE TRIBAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAM, AND WE ARKANSAS POST. AND WE THINK WE FOUND IT." (00:24:05) THE SITE IS LOCATED ON U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE LAND. IT'S MAINTAINED BY BOTH U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE, AND THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE. TOGETHER THEY ARE WORKING TO DEVELOP A PRESERVE IN THAT AREA.

I THINK IT'S VERY IMPORTANT FOR ARKANSANS TO BE, UH, AWARE OF IT, TO PROTECT IT, TO POSSESS IT, TO APPRECIATE IT, AS WELL AS SO I REALLY HOPE THAT, YOU KNOW, SITES ARE BEING DESTROYED, THAT MAYBE WE CAN GET A LITTLE BIT MORE INTEREST IN, IN WANTING TO PRESERVE AMERICAN INDIAN PAST. BUT OUR AMERICAN INDIAN PAST IN ARKANSAS IS ARKANSAS'S PAST, TOO. "THE QUAPAWS WERE CONTROLLING THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. THEY WERE A POWERFUL PEOPLE. NOW, IN THE LATE 1600S, AN EPIDEMIC WENT THROUGH, AND THEY FIGURE PROBABLY OVER 80% OR MORE OF THE POPULATION DIED WITH JUST IN A MATTER OF A FEW YEARS. SO IF YOU HAVE OVER 80% OF A CULTURE DIE, NOT ONLY DO YOU HAVE THE DEATHS OF THOSE PEOPLE, BUT YOU HAVE THE DEATH OF A CULTURE. YOU'RE IN SURVIVAL MODE. YOU'RE NOT ABLE TO REMEMBER THOSE, THOSE TRADITIONS, THOSE AREAS, THOSE THINGS. YOU KNOW, AND IT'S JUST LIKE WHAT WE SEE IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES." "WHEN YOU HAVE A LARGE POPULATION DECLINE AND EVERYBODY'S WORRIED ABOUT WHERE THEIR NEXT MEAL IS COMING FROM EVERYBODY'S WORRIED OR IF THEY'RE JUST GOING TO LIVE THROUGH ANOTHER YEAR, YOU DON'T, THOSE TRADITIONS, THOSE RICH TRADITIONS THAT SHOULD BE PASSED TRADITIONS THAT SHOULD BE PASSED ON, DON'T. AND I THINK THAT'S, THAT HAPPENED WITH THE AMERICAN INDIAN IN A LOT OF WAYS." THOUGH THE QUAPAW CONTRIBUTED A GREAT DEAL TO THE BUILDING OF ARKANSAS, THEY WERE PUSHED TO OTHER LANDS BECAUSE OF THE SWIFT ENCROACHMENT OF WHITE SETTLERS. THE FIRST REMOVAL, OR WHAT SOME WOULD CALL PURGE, WAS TO NORTHWEST LOUISIANA, WHERE A THIRD OF THE TRIBE DIED FROM STARVATION. ARKANSAS GOVERNOR GEORGE IZARD PETITIONED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO INTERVENE AND SAVE THE REMAINING QUAPAW. "IT WAS AT THAT POINT THAT THE QUAPAWS ACTUALLY ASKED ON BEHALF, ASKED THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ON THEIR BEHALF TO BE TERMINATED AS A TRIBE. WE DON'T WANT TO BE INDIANS ANYMORE. WE WOULD RATHER LIVE IN OUR BELOVED ARKANSAS THAN WE WOULD BE TO BE MOVED SOMEPLACE ELSE. SO WE JUST DON'T WANT TO BE INDIANS ANYMORE. WE WOULD ACTUALLY LIKE TO JUST GIVE US, WE'LL. WE'LL LOSE OUR RECOGNITION AS A TRIBE AND JUST LIVE HERE LIKE REGULAR PEOPLE. AND ACTING GOVERNOR CRITTENDEN SAID, NO, WE HAVE LAND FOR YOU IN OKLAHOMA, SO THE QUAPAWS WERE REMOVED TO OKLAHOMA." THOUGH THESE NATIVE PEOPLE WERE FORCED TO MOVE FROM ARKANSAS LONG AGO, THEY STILL REFER TO THE NATURAL STATE AS HOME. IN 2009, ALL THREE TRIBES WERE WELCOMED BACK WITH THE OPENING OF THE HISTORIC ARKANSAS MUSEUM'S EXHIBIT "WE WALK IN TWO WORLDS: THE CADDO, OSAGE AND QUAPAW IN ARKANSAS." THE STORIES IN THE EXHIBIT ARE TOLD FROM THE NATIVE PRESPECTIVE AND SHARE THE CONTINUATION OF RICH CULTURES. "IMAGINE IF A GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT HAD A CULTURE SO DIFFERENT THAN YOUR OWN, JUST CAME AND SETTLED AMONGST YOUR PEOPLE. AND THEN THEY TOLD YOU TO LEAVE AND MOVE TO LANDS YOU HAD NEVER SEEN BEFORE. THIS IS NOT ONE OF THE HAPPIER MOMENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY, AND IT NEEDS TO BE REMEMBERED. THOSE PEOPLE THAT LOST THEIR LIVES AND LOST THEIR LIVELIHOOD AND LAND SHOULD BE RESPECTED." THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXCERPT FROM "ON A SPRING DAY" BY ROY BONEY, JR., CHEROKEE ARTIST

[CHEROKEE DIALOGUE] INDIAN REMOVAL BEGAN HAPPENING LONG BEFORE THE HISTORIC TRAIL OF TEARS IN THE 1830S. WHITE SETTLERS WERE TAKING OVER TRIBAL LANDS IN THE SOUTHEAST, FORCING NATIVE PEOPLE TO DECIDE IF THEY COULD BEGIN A NEW LIFE IN A NEW LAND. FOR THE CHEROKEE PEOPLE, THEIR JOURNEY BEGINS WITH A GROUP KNOWN AS THE "OLD SETTLERS" WHO RELOCATED TO NORTHERN ARKANSAS ON THEIR OWN. "THE INFORMATION THAT I HAVE AS TO THE MIGRATION OF MY PARENTS, WHO CAME WEST FROM GEORGIA, CAME ON THEIR OWN FREE WILL, PAID THEIR OWN EXPENSES AND SETTLED AROUND THE PRESENT TOWN OF COAL HILL, SOUTH AND EAST OF THE PRESENT TOWN OF FORT SMITH, ARKANSAS. THIS REMOVAL FROM GEORGIA TO ARKANSAS WAS ABOUT THE YEAR OF 1815. THEY REMAINED THERE ABOUT THIRTEEN YEARS THUS AND MOVED TO THE INDIAN TERRITORY IN 1828•" - BIRD DOUBLEHEAD, CHEROKEE "FEDERAL POLICY, YOU KNOW, FROM 1785 WITH THE FIRST TREATY WAS THE HOPE TO, UH, CIVILIZE INDIANS, OR MAKE THEM IN THE WAY OF THE CURRENT FRONTIERSMAN OR-OR PLANTATION OWNERS. WHEN THAT HAD LIMITED SUCCESS, AND THERE WAS GROWING RACISM AND GROWING DESIRE FOR CHEROKEE LANDS THAT WERE UNSEATED AT THE TIME, THE IDEA IS, IF WE MOVE THE INDIANS PAST SOME GEOGRAPHIC BARRIER THAT WHITE FOLKS WOULDN'T FOLLOW, MAYBE THE QUOTE 'INDIAN PROBLEM' WOULD BE MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS TO THE WEST PROVIDED THOSE NATURAL BARRIERS. BUT EACH PROVED NOT TO HOLD BACK WHITE SETTLERS. THE CHEROKEE WERE OFFERED INCENTIVES TO MOVE TO LAND IN ARKANSAS THAT HAD BEEN CHOSEN FOR THEM. THIS IS REFLECTED IN THE TREATY OF 1819. "WELL, IF YOU LOOK AT THE TREATY, IT'S QUITE FASCINATING. THEY OFFERED A KETTLE AND TRAPS AND A GUN, BLANKETS, UH, PAYMENT ON THE, UH-T-TO MAKE THE TRIP. IF YOU CONVERTED THAT TO PRESENT DAY, IT'S LIKE, WE'LL BACK UP THE U-HAUL TO YOUR HOUSE, WE'LL GIVE YOU A MICROWAVE AND A-AND A DOUBLE-BARREL SHOTGUN, AND WE'LL HAVE GARTH BROOKS THERE FOR A CONCERT FOR YOU WHEN YOU GET TO ARKANSAS. AND THAT WAS REALLY WHAT WAS HAPPENING. AND A NUMBER OF CHEROKEES TOOK THE DEAL BECAUSE THEY WERE BEING ENCROACHED UPON BY, UH, UH, OUTSIDERS, AND THEY WANTED THE WAY OF LIFE THAT THEY HAD. BASICALLY, HUNTING AND FISHING SUBSISTENCE AND GARDENING." "MY MOTHER WAS ABOUT TWELVE YEARS OLD WHEN THEY WERE FORCED TO LEAVE GEORGIA AND I HAVE HEARD HER SAY THAT BEFORE THEY LEFT THEIR HOMES THERE, THAT THE WHITE PEOPLE WOULD COME INTO THEIR HOUSES AND LOOK THINGS OVER AND WHEN THEY FOUND SOMETHING THAT THEY LIKED, THEY WOULD SAY, "THIS IS MINE, I AM GOING TO HAVE IT"•" - SUSIE BECK, CHEROKEE AS THE UNITED STATES WAS GROWING, SO WAS THE PRESSURE TO REMOVE THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF SOUTHEASTERN TRIBES. TREATIES CONTINUED TO BE MADE. "SO THE UNITED STATES, WHEN THEY TRIED TO REMOVE THE BALANCE OF THE CHEROKEES IN THE OLD COUNTRY, FOUND THAT THEY WERE GOING TO HAVE TO MAKE A PLACE FOR NOT ONLY THE OLD SETTLERS WHO REMOVED IN-PRIOR TO 1819, UH, FROM ARKANSAS, BUT ALSO MAKE A PLACE FOR THOSE THAT THEY WANTED REMOVED FROM NORTH GEORGIA. AND SO IT'S QUITE FASCINATING THAT SOME, UH, NINE YEARS LATER IN 1828, ANOTHER TREATY WAS, UH, DRAFTED TO REMOVE THE CHEROKEES JUST, UH, A FEW MILES OVER ACROSS THE ARKANSAS TERRITORIAL LINE INTO INDIAN TERRITORY. SO BASICALLY THEY SAID TO THE CHEROKEES•, YOU JUST GOT OFF ONE EXIT OF I-40 TOO EARLY. YOU JUST NEED TO GO ON DOWN ACROSS THAT ARKANSAS LINE, GET ON INTO INDIAN TERRITORY." "MY GRANDFATHER TOLD ME, HE MADE THE TRIP BAREFOOT AND OFTEN LEFT BLOODY FOOTPRINTS IN THE SNOW. HE CARRIED A LITTLE BUNDLE OF CLOTHING AND AN OLD FLINTLOCK J.W. STEPHENS, MUSCOGEE (CREEK) ANOTHER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN TRIBES, THE MUSCOGEE (CREEK), HAS A SIMILAR STORY TO THE CHEROKEE. THEY ALSO WOULD HAVE MULTIPLE JOURNEYS DURING REMOVAL. THE FIRST TOOK PLACE IN 1828. "THE GROUP THAT WAS REMOVED WERE MAINLY LOWER CREEKS, WHAT THEY WOULD CALL LOWER CREEKS. THEY WERE THE MORE CHRISTIANIZED MOVEMENT IN 1832 THAT WAS A FORCED REMOVED, WHAT I WOULD CALL THE FORCED REMOVAL. AND THIS WAS MOSTLY THE UPPER TOWNS. THEY WERE THE MORE TRADITIONAL DURING THAT PERIOD OF TIME. THE FIRST ONE WAS MORE KIND OF A-HOW WOULD YOU SAY THAT OF A- THEY HAD MORE CONVENIENCES, I GUESS. BUT THE FORCED REMOVAL WAS THE HARDEST BECAUSE THEY WERE ACTUALLY MOVED IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER, AND THAT'S WHEN WE LOST A LOT OF OUR PEOPLE. PROBABLY CLOSE TO-THINK THE ESTIMATE WAS AROUND EIGHT THOUSAND." MEMPHIS LANDING BECAME THE GATHERING PLACE FOR THE CHICKASAW PEOPLE TO START THEIR TREK ACROSS ARKANSAS. "THE CHICKASAWS, THEIR FIRST, UM, STOP, SO TO SPEAK, WAS LITTLE ROCK DEPOT. AND THERE, THEY WERE GOING TO, UH, PICK UP, YOU KNOW, FOOD SUPPLIES, REORGANIZE AND BEGIN, UH, A WALKING ROUTE TO FORT TOWSON. NOW, THERE WERE ELDERLY FOLKS, AND THERE WERE PEOPLE WHO WERE SICK THAT COULD NOT TAKE THE WALKING ROUTE TO FORT TOWSON, SO THEY TOOK A STEAMER DOWN THE ARKANSAS RIVER TO FORT COFFEE. AND SO THERE WAS SORT OF A SPLIT IN THE TRIBE AT THAT POINT. UM, IT WAS HERE AT LITTLE ROCK DEPOT THAT ORAL TRADITION TELLS THAT ONE OF OUR BELOVED CHIEFS, CHIEF TISHOMINGO, UM, PASSED AWAY. HE WAS OVER A HUNDRED YEARS OLD. AND, UM, HE, UH, SUCCUMBED TO AN ILLNESS, AND IS BURIED SOMEWHERE NEAR LITTLE ROCK DEPOT. AND SO, UH, WE LOST, UH, A GREAT MAN AT THAT TIME, BUT WE'RE STILL, UM, MOVING TOWARDS, YOU KNOW, INDIAN TERRITORY WHERE WE WERE GOING TO HAVE OUR NEW HOME. NOW MOVING ALONG THE ROUTE, THE WALKING ROUTE, IT BEGAN TO RAIN." THE ROADS IN ARKANSAS AT THAT TIME WERE PRETTY PRIMITIVE. AND SO, UH, IT BECAME VERY MUDDY VERY QUICKLY, AND THEN, UM, MOST OF THE WAGONS GOT MIRED IN THE MUD UP TO THEIR AXLES, COULDN'T MOVE VERY FAST, AND UH, PEOPLE GOT WET. AND BECAUSE OF THE RAIN, IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO START FIRES TO, UM, DRY OUT BEDDING OR CLOTHING, OR JUST TO GET WARM, AND SO PEOPLE CAME DOWN WITH PNEUMONIA AND OTHER ILLNESSES ALONG THE WAY, AND UH, PEOPLE BECAME VERY SICK, AND UH, YOU BEGIN TO SEE PEOPLE, UH, PASS AWAY, PEOPLE WHO DIED ON TH TRAIL. UM, THIS SLOWED THE PROGRESS EVEN FURTHER BECAUSE, UM, PART OF THE REASON WHY THEY CALL IT THE TRAIL OF TEARS, UM, IS THAT INDIAN PEOPLE BEGAN TO LOSE GREAT NUMBERS OF FAMILY MEMBERS." "THE FOOD ON THE TRAIL OF TEARS WAS VERY BAD AND VERY SCARCE AND THE INDIANS WOULD GO FOR TWO OR THREE DAYS WITHOUT WATER, WHICH THEY WOULD GET JUST WHEN THEY CAME TO A CREEK OR RIVER AS THERE WERE NO WELLS TO GET WATER FROM. THERE WERE NO ROADS TO TRAVEL OVER, AS THE COUNTRY WAS JUST A WILDERNESS. THE MEN AND WOMEN WOULD GO AHEAD OF THE WAGONS AND CUT THE TIMBER OUT OF THE WAY WITH AXES." - WASHINGTON LEE, CHEROKEE "MY GRANDFATHER DIED ON THIS TRIP. A HASTILY CUT PIECE OF COTTON WOOD CONTAINED HIS BODY. THE OPEN ENDS WERE CLOSED UP AND THIS WAS PLACED ALONG A CREEK. THIS WAS NOT THE ONLY TIME THIS MANNER OF BURYING WAS HELD NOR THE ONLY WAY. SOME OF THE DEAD WERE PLACED BETWEEN TWO LOGS AND QUICKLY COVERED WITH SHRUBS, SOME WERE SHOVED UNDER THE THICKETS, AND SOME WERE NOT EVEN BURIED BUT LEFT BY THE WAYSIDE." MARY HILL, MUSCOGEE (CREEK)

AS THE SOUTHEASTERN TRIBES TRAVELED THROUGH ARKANSAS, EACH GROUP STOPPED AT SIGNIFICANT PLACES ALONG THE WAY IN ORDER TO REASSESS THEIR SUPPLIES, HEALTH, AND AREA CLIMATE. THE SICK AND ELDERLY USUALLY TRAVELED BY BOAT AND THE ABLE-BODIED BY LAND. "WE ARE A NATIONAL TRAIL OF TEARS SITE, AND WE'RE IMPORTANT ALONG THE TRAIL OF TEARS BECAUSE WE-WE'RE A KEY STOP ON THE WATER ROUTE. LAKE DARDANELLE WAS A KEY DECISION POINT FOR THE CHEROKEE AND OTHER INDIAN TRIBES THAT WERE REMOVED BECAUSE THEY HAD TO CHOOSE WHETHER THEY WERE GOING TO CONTINUE ON WATER OR CONTINUE ON LAND TO INDIAN TERRITORY." ALL OF THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIAN PEOPLE FOLLOWING THE VARIOUS ROUTES TO THEIR NEW HOMES IN "INDIAN TERRITORY," GATHERED AT THE SAME PLACE TO END THEIR

WE'RE HERE AT FORT SMITH NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE, AND SPECIFICALLY, WE'RE HERE AT THE TRAIL OF TEARS OVERLOOK. NOW THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE ALL FIVE TRIBES CAME THROUGH THIS AREA BEFORE GOING INTO INDIAN TERRITORY. AND THEY RECEIVED THEIR SUPPLIES ON THE TRAIL OF TEARS BEFORE GOING INTO INDIAN TERRITORY. THE CHOCTAW NATION OF OKLAHOMA CALLS THEIR REMOVAL 'THE LONG WALK'. THEIR CURRENT VIEW OF THAT TIME PERIOD IS OF MOVING FORWARD. "THE PHILOSOPHY THAT WE HAVE NOW. UH, WE HAVE A-UH, WE KEEP REPEATING THE- THE TRAIL OF TEARS LIKE YOU KNOW, WE'RE-WE'RE A VICTIM OF A HISTORICAL EVENT. WELL, THAT WAS THEN. AND SINCE THAT TIME, THE CHOCTAW, UH, HAS MOVED ON. AND, UH, WHAT I TRY TO DO, WHAT I TRY TO TELL THE YOUNG PEOPLE IS TALK ABOUT THE COURAGE, THE RESILIENT SPIRIT OF THE CHOCTAW, YOU KNOW, BECAUSE AS LONG AS WE KEEP REPEATING, WE KEEP BRINGING THAT PORTRAIT OF THE INDIAN ON HORSEBACK, YOU KNOW, WE-WE'RE JUST REALLY STEREOTYPING OUR SELF AGAIN." OLIN'S GRANDMOTHER WAS A BASKET WEAVER AND SHE USED HER ART TO TEACH YOUNG OLIN ABOUT LIVING AMONG DIFFERENT PEOPLE. "SO, I WAS ABOUT MAYBE SIX YEARS OLD, AND, UH, SHE SAT DOWN WITH ME. AND SHE WAS WEAVING A BASKET, AND UH, SHE WANTED TELL ME ABOUT OUR PEOPLE, AND THE OTHER PEOPLE THAT WE LIVE WITH TODAY. SHE SAID THAT THE BASKET HAS DIFFERENT COLORS, JUST LIKE SOCIETY HAS DIFFERENT PEOPLE. BUT IT-THEY'RE ALL WOVEN, YOU KNOW, UH, UNDER, OVER. BUT IT'S-IT'S WOVEN BY A BASKET WEAVER, SOMEBODY THAT KNOWS THE DESIGN, SOMEBODY WHO ALSO-AL-ALREADY HAD THE PICTURE IN THE MIND BEFORE THEY EVEN START." "THE ROAD THEY TRAVELED, HISTORY CALLS THE "TRAIL OF TEARS". THIS TRAIL WAS MORE THAN TEARS. IT WAS DEATH, SORROW, HUNGER, EXPOSURE, AND HUMILIATION TO A CIVILIZED PEOPLE•" - ELIZABETH WATTS, CHEROKEE THE INDIAN REMOVALS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY ARE STILL MAKING AN IMPACT TODAY. REMEMBERING THE RESILIENCY AND STRENGTH OF THE SOUTHEASTERN TRIBES IS THE KEY TO MOVING FORWARD. ONE OF THE MANY SUBJECTS OF HISTORY IS WAR. THERE IS A WARRIOR TRADITION IN MOST AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES. THE REASONS FOR BATTLE DIFFER BUT THE AIM HAS ALWAYS BEEN FOR SURVIVAL AND HONOR. IN TIMES OF MILITARY COMBAT, NATIVE PEOPLE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT OF VOLUNTEERING FOR THE UNITED STATES MILITARY, REGARDLESS OF PAST AGGRESSION.

OVER THE COURSE OF HISTORY, EVER SINCE THE UNITED STATES, YOU KNOW, CAME INTO BEING, WE HAVE NEVER SHIRKED OUR DUTY AS FAR AS, UH, ANYTHING THAT INVOLVED, YOU KNOW, WITH THE UNITED STATES HAS, YOU KNOW, HAS-HAS HAD THEIR, UH, CONFLICTS, SO. AND PROBABLY THE-NATIVE AMERICANS PROBABLY BE THE FIRST TO VOLUNTEER FOR ANYTHING LIKE THAT•" "MY FATHER WAS IN THE ARMY. MY UNCLE WAS IN THE ARMY. AND I CHOSE TO BE IN THE NAVY. AND THEN MY, UH, BROTHER WAS IN THE ARMY ALSO. SO THAT-YOU KNOW, IT'S JUST SOMETHING I FELT LIKE I NEEDED TO DO. AND BACK IN THE '70S WHEN I WENT IN, VIETNAM WAR, IT WAS, UH, DIFFERENT ANYWAY FOR THE MILITARY BECAUSE OF THE, UM, DEMONSTRATING THAT THEY WERE DOING• BUT I-YOU KNOW, I WAS VERY PROUD OF MY SERVICE TO THE COUNTRY, AND THAT I WAS ABLE TO GIVE BACK TO WHAT, YOU KNOW, TO THIS COUNTRY BASED ON MY SERVICE." FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE PRESENT, NATIVE PEOPLE HAVE FOUGHT FOR DIFFERENT REASONS AND ON DIFFERENT SIDES. "IN OUR HISTORY, YOU KNOW, THE INDIANS HAVE ALWAYS, UH, FOUGHT, YOU KNOW A LOT OF TIMES JUST FOR HUNTING RIGHTS NOT-NOT, UH, TO SAY TO CONQUER SOMEBODY, I MEAN, WE DIDN'T WANT TO GO OUT AND CONQUER YOU AND GET THE BEST OF YOU. WE JUST FOUGHT OVER THE-THE RIGHTS TO-A PLACE FOR-TO HUNT, YOU KNOW.

[DRUM MUSIC]. DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, TRIBES TOOK SIDES BASED ON TRADE ALLIANCES. FOR INSTANCE, AT ARKANSAS POST DURING JAMES COLBERT'S RAID, THE QUAPAW FOUGHT BESIDE THE SPANISH, WHO COMMANDED THE FORT DURING THAT TIME. THE CHICKASAW TOOK THE SIDE OF THE BRITISH, WHO WANTED TO CONTROL THE WESTERN BORDERS OF THE FRONTIER. AFTER THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, SKIRMISHES BETWEEN AMERICAN INDIANS AND WHITE SETTLERS CONTINUED INTO THE WAR OF 1812. NORTHERN TRIBES AIDED BRITISH TROOPS IN DEFENDING CANADA FROM AN INVASION OF UNITED STATES TROOPS. IN THE SOUTH, THE CREEK WERE ENCOURAGED BY THE BRITISH TO ATTACK SETTLERS. TECUMSEH, THE GREAT SHAWNEE LEADER, WAS KILLED IN HIS PAN-INDIAN REVOLT TO STOP THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES. TERRITORIAL CONFLICT SURROUNDING INDIAN REMOVAL CARRIED ON INTO THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. AMERICAN INDIAN PARTICIPATION DURING THE CIVIL WAR WAS INFLUENCED BY GEOGRAPHY. TRIBES ALONG THE KANSAS AND MISSOURI BORDERS TENDED TO BE UNION LOYALISTS. THE INFLUENCE OF GOVERNMENT INDIAN AGENTS AND THE NEED FOR PROTECTION FROM NEIGHBORING SECESSIONIST TRIBES WERE THE DECIDING FACTORS. THE CONFEDERACY HAD MILITIAS MADE UP OF DIFFERENT TRIBES WHOSE LANDS BORDERED SOUTHERN STATES. THE SO-CALLED CIVILIZED TRIBES, FORMERLY OF THE SOUTHEAST, HAD ADOPTED PLANTATION AGRICULTURE AND SLAVERY. ECONOMIC TIES TO THE NEW ORLEANS BUSINESS MARKET MADE IT DIFFICULT NOT TO SIDE WITH SECESSION. THE CHEROKEE NATION WAS DIVIDED IN ITS SYMPATHIES. PART OF THE TRIBE WANTED TO REMAIN NEUTRAL, BUT THAT WAS SOON BROKEN BY PRESSURE AND PROMISES MADE BY THE CONFEDERATES. CHEROKEE RENEGADE COLONEL STAND WATIE LED THE OTHER FACTION INTO WAR, SUCH AS THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE OR ELK HORN TAVERN IN ARKANSAS. "ONE OF THE UNIQUE THINGS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE, IT WAS THE, LARGEST FORCE OF, UH, INDIANS TO SERVE IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AT ANY ONE TIME WAS HERE. WE HAD, UH, BOTH THE FIRST AND SECOND ROUND OF CHEROKEE RIFLES, UH, ONE OF THEM-REGIMENTS NO LONGER MOUNTED. THEY HAD TO GIVE UP THEIR HORSES. AND THEN WE HAD OTHER REGIMENTS OF INDIANS ALONG THE WAY TO SUPPORT THE SOUTHERN CAUSE. THEY FOUGHT ON THE LEETOWN SIDE OF THE BATTLEFIELD, WHICH IS ABOUT THREE MILES FROM HERE ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE PARK. THEIR FORCES UNDER STAND WATIE INSTRUMENTAL IN CAPTURING TWO GUNS OF A MISSOURI BATTERY. THE-THEY WERE, UM, VERY SURPRISED THAT THEY'D NEVER SEEN A CANNON BEFORE AND DID NOT QUITE KNOW WHAT TO MAKE OF IT BUT, YOU KNOW, THEY JUST REALIZED THAT THEY WERE BEING SHELLED AND WERE CHARGED WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF TEXAS TROOPS TOWARDS THE GUNS AND DROVE OFF MISSOURIANS AND WERE ABLE TO CAPTURE THE CANNONS." AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS PASSED THE ARMY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1866 TO EXPAND CAVALRY AND INFANTRY REGIMENTS. THIS INCLUDED THE UNITS FOR BLACK ENLISTED MEN, SUCH AS THE "BUFFALO SOLDIERS" AND THE ASSEMBLY OF UNITS FOR INDIAN SCOUTS. AMERICAN INDIANS WOULD TYPICALLY ENLIST AS ARMY SCOUTS TO STAY NEAR AND DEFEND THEIR HOMELANDS FROM OLD ENEMIES. THE ARMY, ON THE OTHER HAND, SAW IT AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO GAIN STRENGTH IN HOSTILE AREAS AND TO ASSIMILATE THE ENLISTED AMERICAN INDIAN MEN.

[MUSIC]. THE SAME GOVERNMENT THAT DIDN'T ALLOW AMERICAN INDIAN SCHOOL CHILDREN TO SPEAK THEIR TRIBAL LANGUAGES IN THE NINETEENTH ADULTS TO USE THOSE LANGUAGES DURING WORLD WAR I. FOR THE SAKE OF DEFEATING GERMANY AND SAVING LIVES, AMERICAN INDIAN SOLDIERS BECAME CODETALKERS. WORLD WAR I WAS THE FIRST MODERN LARGE SCALE WAR AND THE FIRST TIME AMERICAN INDIAN BOYS FROM FARMS, RANCHES, AND RESERVATIONS CROSSED THE ATLANTIC TO FIGHT. "NOW, AS FAR AS THE CODE TALKERS [ARE] CONCERNED; I WAS ACQUAINTED WITH FOUR OF THEM, PERSONALLY ACQUAINTED. ONE OF THEM WAS MY UNCLE, JAMES EDWARDS." THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ASKED MEN FROM SIX AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES TO MEMORIZE CODE, BASED ON THEIR TRIBAL LANGUAGES, TO TRANSMIT MESSAGES ABOUT TROOP MOVEMENTS IN THE FIELD. THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE CONFUSED GERMAN INTERCEPT OPERATIVES AND THE TACTIC BROUGHT A QUICKER END TO A BRUTAL WAR. CHOCTAW ELDER AND WORLD WAR II NAVY VETERAN BERTRAM BOBB TELLS OF HIS UNCLE'S MILITARY SERVICE IN "THE GREAT WAR." "WHENEVER A GROUP OF CHOCTAWS GET TOGETHER, THEY HAVE A GOOD TIME. THEY JUST TALK AND TALK IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE, AND LAUGHING, PLAY AROUND AND KID EACH OTHER. AND UH, THE OFFICER SAW THEM OUT THERE AND SAYS WHAT ARE YOU T-WHAT ARE YA'LL TALKING? AND JAMES EDWARD SAYS, UH, WE'RE TALKING CHOCTAW. THAT'S OUR LANGUAGE. HE SAYS HOW MANY HAVE YOU GOT IN THE COMPANY HERE? OH, GOTTEN OUR WHOLE COMPANY HERE, M-EIGHTEEN, TWENTY. AND, UH, AND SO, UH, THE OFFICER THERE GOT THE IDEA THAT THEY COULD, UH, USE THEM MAYBE SOMEPLACE. SO THEY, UH, ASKED THEM TO COME AND-AND TO TALK, UH, CHOCTAW TO THEM, AND TO TRAIN THEM TO TALK ON THE PHONES, AND, UH, RELAY MESSAGES•" THE U.S. INVOLVEMENT OVER THERE, IN WORLD WAR I, WAS BRIEF COMPARED TO ALLIED FORCES, THOUGH NOT WITHOUT TREMENDOUS IMPACT. AMERICAN INDIAN CODE TALKERS BECAME A SURPRISE SECRET WEAPON. IN OCTOBER 1918, THE U.S. ARMY'S THIRTY-SIXTH DIVISION TRANSMITTED OPEN VOICE MESSAGES ABOUT TROOP MOVEMENTS IN FRANCE. THE MESSAGES, IN SEVERAL TRIBAL LANGUAGES, CONFUSED THE GERMANS AND HELPED GET AID TO FRENCH FORCES. NEARLY A CENTURY LATER IN 1989, FRANCE HONORED THE CHOCTAW CODE TALKERS WITH FRANCE'S CHEVALIER DE L'ORDRE NATIONAL DU MERITE FOR THE IMPORTANCE OF THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO ENDING THE WAR. CODE TALKER UNITS CONTINUED TO BE USED INTO WORLD WAR II WITH THE ADDITION OF ELEVEN MORE TRIBAL LANGUAGES. PRIOR TO THE KOREAN CONFLICT, THE MILITARY WAS SEGREGATED. EXAMPLES OF THIS ARE THE ALL AFRICAN-AMERICAN TUSKEGEE AIRMEN THE JAPANESE-AMERICAN 100TH INFANTRY BATTALION AND THE 442ND REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM, AND THE AMERICAN INDIAN CODE TALKERS. IN 1948, PRESIDENT TRUMAN DESEGREGATED THE MILITARY BY SIGNING EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 ESTABLISHING THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUALITY OF TREATMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN THE ARMED SERVICES. INTEGRATION WAS SET IN MOTION ALLOWING RACES TO MIX WITHIN BASIC TRAINING AND UNITS. ONE COMMON TRAIT THAT AMERICAN INDIANS SHARE IS PERSEVERANCE. NATIVE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DRIVEN TO SURVIVE AND TO DO SO WITH HONOR. IT IS NO SURPRISE THAT THE VOLUNTEERISM FOR MILITARY SERVICE ACCELERATED WITH EACH CALL TO DUTY.

[DRUM MUSIC AND INDIAN SINGING]. THESE PATRIOTS ARE CELEBRATED AND REMEMBERED WITH CEREMONY. "I DON'T KNOW IF YOU'VE SEEN, BUT, UH, RIGHT SOUTH OF THAT BUILDING WE HAVE A MONUMENT, AND IT'S THE, UH, IT'S THE, UH, SERVICES, UH, MEN AND WOMEN THAT WERE SERVED IN THE ARMED FORCES. AND THERE'S TWO PARTS OF THE MONUMENT, FRONT AND BACK, THAT ARE COVERED WITH A LOT OF NAMES OF PEOPLE THAT ARE, ARE STILL HERE TODAY AND SOME THAT HAVE PASSED ON. WE HAVE A LOT OF TRADITION IN CARRYING ON OUR SERVICE TO OUR COUNTRY." THE NEW MUSCOGEE (CREEK) NATION VETERANS MUSEUM MIXES UNITED STATES MILITARY TRADITION WITH THAT OF TRIBAL SYMBOLISM IN THE DESIGN OF THIS SPECIAL BUILDING. THE EXHIBIT PORTION OF THE MUSEUM SURROUNDS A PENTAGON-SHAPED CENTER THAT HAS AN OPEN ROOF SIMILAR TO A SMOKE HOLE IN AN ANCIENT DWELLING. ON THE FLOOR OF THIS COURTYARD-OF-SORTS ARE THE SEALS OF THE FIVE BRANCHES OF THE MILITARY. IT'S A PLACE FOR VETERANS AND THEIR FAMILIES TO REFLECT. "IF YOU NOTICED, AS YOU CAME INTO THE -- TO THE MUSEUM, YOU SAW A BRONZE STATUE OUT THERE SYMBOLIC OF THE PAST AND THE PRESENT, THE WARRIOR STANDING BEHIND THE PRESENT SOLDIER. YOU KNOW, WE ALWAYS LOOK AT THE PAST AND THE FUTURE, AND WE NEVER DO ANYTHING WITHOUT FIRST SOMETIMES LOOKING AT WHERE WE CAME FROM. AND WHEN WE CAN GO BACK TO LOOK AT WHERE WE COME FROM, IT REALLY IS-GIVES US A STRONG DIRECTION OF WHERE WE'RE GOING AS WELL. AND IT NEVER HURTS OUR PEOPLE TO LOOK BACK ON WHERE WE'VE BEEN, WHAT WE'VE DONE, THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN DONE, AND EXPERIENCED BY-BY VETERANS AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND EVEN OUR NATION. SO WE HAVE A LOT TO BE THANKFUL FOR. "IN THE BRIGHTEST DAY, IN THE DARKEST NIGHT, NO EVIL SHALL ESCAPE MY SIGHT, FOR I AM THE SHADOW WOLF." SERVICE TO THE UNITED STATES COMES IN MANY FORMS. SINCE THE EARLY NINETEEN SEVENTIES, A SPECIAL UNIT OF U.S. IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS, NOW IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HAS PROTECTED THE BORDER BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO. ORIGINALLY DEVELOPED TO CONTROL THE TRAFFICKING OF MARIJUANA FROM MEXICO INTO AND ACROSS RESERVATION LAND. THE SHADOW WOLVES AS THEY ARE CALLED, ARE A SELECT GROUP OF AMERICAN INDIAN TRACKERS. REPRESENTING EIGHT DIFFERENT TRIBAL NATIONS, THESE BORDER PATROL OFFICERS TRACK DRUG SMUGGLERS USING A TRADITIONAL METHOD CALLED "CUTTING FOR SIGN." USING A WOLF PACK-STYLE APPROACH, OFFICERS LOOK FOR THREADS OF CLOTHING, FOOTPRINTS, TIRE TRACKS, ANYTHING ODD THAT STANDS OUT IN THE ARIZONA DESERT. THOUGH THIS UNIT HAS THE LATEST HIGH TECH GEAR, THEY RELY HEAVILY ON THE METHOD OF PAYING ATTENTION TO DETAIL. THE SHADOW WOLVES HAVE TRAINED BORDER GUARDS AND CUSTOMS AGENTS AROUND THE WORLD TO USE THE SAME TECHNIQUES. RECENTLY, THIS UNIT TRAINED REGIONAL BORDER GUARDS IN AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN TO TRACK TERRORISTS. "IT IS WELL RECOGNIZED THAT, HISTORICALLY, NATIVE AMERICANS HAVE THE HIGHEST RECORD OF SERVICE PER CAPITA WHEN COMPARED TO OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS. THE REASONS BEHIND THIS DISPROPORTIONATE CONTRIBUTION ARE COMPLEX AND DEEPLY ROOTED IN TRADITIONAL AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE. IN MANY RESPECTS, NATIVE AMERICANS ARE NO DIFFERENT FROM OTHERS WHO VOLUNTEER FOR MILITARY SERVICE. THEY DO, HOWEVER, HAVE DISTINCTIVE CULTURAL VALUES WHICH DRIVE THEM TO SERVE THEIR COUNTRY. ONE SUCH VALUE IS THEIR PROUD WARRIOR TRADITION." NO ONE HATES WAR MORE THAN A SOLDIER. BUT WITH WARRIORS, THERE IS A NEED TO PROTECT AND THE CALL OVERRIDES THE FEAR. A BLURRY COMBINATION OF FACT, FICTION, AND THEORY BREEDS MISINFORMATION. STEREOTYPES CONCERNING AMERICAN INDIANS ARE PERPETUATED DUE TO LACK OF KNOWLEDGE. NATIVE PEOPLE HAVE STRUGGLED TO MAINTAIN CULTURAL IDENTITY WHILE BEING FORCED TO FIT INTO A ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL MOLD. PRESERVATION OF CULTURE IS PART OF COUNTERACTING MISCONCEPTIONS AND MAINTAINING TRIBAL INDIVIDUALITY WHILE BEING PART OF THE GROUP CALLED AMERICAN INDIANS.

[INDIAN SINGING]. GENERATIONS OF PEOPLE HAVE VISITED HOT SPRINGS TO BATHE IN THE THERMAL WATERS OF THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS. ADVERTISING FOR THE BATHES RELIED HEAVILY ON THE LEGEND THAT THIS WAS A SACRED AMERICAN INDIAN MEETING PLACE. "OH, THE GRANDDADDY OR CHAMPION MYTH IS THAT THIS WAS NEUTRAL GROUND FOR ALL OF THE INDIANS, UM, THE VALLEY OF PEACE AND THAT, YOU KNOW, EVERYBODY WHO CAME HERE WOULD LAY DOWN THEIR TOMAHAWK AND BATHE TOGETHER PEACEABLY, HERE IN THE VALLEY, NO MATTER WHAT THEIR GRUDGES MIGHT HAVE BEEN AGAINST EACH OTHER ELSEWHERE•" IS IT TRUE OR NOT? ALTHOUGH A VALLEY OF PEACE IS A PLEASANT IDEA, THERE IS NO ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OR RELIABLE SOURCE TO BACKUP THE STORY. MODERN TRIBES SHARE NO ORAL TRADITION OF THESE EVENTS IN HOT SPRINGS. THEORIES AND MYTHS ARE THE ONLY RESULTS. "THE INDIAN TRIBES HAVE A SPECIAL EXPERTISE WHEN IT COMES TO, INTERPRETING THEIR OWN CULTURE, AND THIS EXPERTISE CAN ONLY COME FROM, BEING RAISED WITHIN THAT CULTURE, BEING RAISED WITHIN THAT TRIBE. AND TH-THIS INFORMATION CANNOT BE LEARNED IN SCHOOL OR GLEANED FROM THE ARCHEOLOGICAL RECORD. AND IN MANY CASES, THESE TRADITIONS MAY, SPAN, UH, SPAN CENTURIES, MAY GO BACK INTO PREHISTORIC TIMES. SO BY TAPPING INTO THIS-THIS, BY CONSULTING WITH THE TRIBES AND BY TAPPING INTO THIS, UH, THIS KNOWLEDGE BASE, UH, IT MAY GIVE ARCHEOLOGISTS, THE-THE INFORMATION THAT THEY NEED TO AT LEAST BETTER INTERPRET SOME OF THESE THINGS THAT WE CAN REALLY ONLY SPECULATE ABOUT NOW•." MODERN AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES HAVE MORE THAN THEIR ANCESTORS' ORAL TRADITIONS TO GUIDE THEM THROUGH THE PAST. MANY HAVE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICES THAT WORK WITH VARIOUS AGENCIES, SUCH AS THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, TO PROTECT TRIBAL AND ANCESTRAL LANDS. THESE AREAS OFTEN HAVE CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE. THE NATIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACT WAS CREATED IN 1966 FOR THE CARE OF THREATENED CULTURAL RESOURCES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. OVER THE YEARS, AMENDMENTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO GIVE INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CONTROL TO AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS, LIKE THE CADDO. "WE'RE IN THE PROCESS OF, UH, REPATRIATING OUR ANCESTORS FROM ARKANSAS FROM AROUND LAKE MILLWOOD, THROUGH, UH, THE LITTLE ROCK CORPS OF ENGINEERS. UH, WE HAVE 82 CADDO ANCESTORS, ALONG WITH THEIR, UH, FUNERARY ITEMS THAT WERE REMOVED BACK IN THE '50S, WHEN THE LAKE WAS BEING BUILT, A, AN AREA HAS BEEN LOCATED THERE AT LAKE MILLWOOD FOR A, A RE-INTERNMENT AREA. AND HOPEFULLY, UH, SOMEDAY SOON WE CAN RE-BURY OUR ANCESTORS BACK IN AN AREA THAT THEY WERE REMOVED FROM AND, AND BE PROTECTED, UH, LIKE ANY OTHER, UH, YOU KNOW, ANY OTHER INDIVIDUAL OUT THERE IN, THAT WOULD WANT THEIR GRANDMOTHER OR GRANDFATHER OR BROTHER OR SISTER PROTECTED, YOU KNOW, AND, AND PUT THEM BACK IN A RESPECTFUL WAY."

IN 1990, THE NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION ACT, OR NAGPRA, WAS INTRODUCED INTO FEDERAL LAW AS A WAY TO PROTECT ANCESTRAL HUMAN REMAINS AND BURIAL OBJECTS. ARKANSAS HAS ITS OWN LAW GIVING THE SAME PROTECTION TO PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LAND AND WATER. "NAGPRA, UH, IS A VERY, VERY IMPORTANT LAW THAT WAS PASSED FOR NOT JUST THE CHOCTAW, BUT ALL INDIAN PEOPLE. RIGHT NOW, TODAY, I THINK WE HAVE CHOCTAW REMAINS, UH, OVER TWO THOUSAND THAT'S STILL IN THE MUSEUMS. THEY ARE IN PAPER SACKS, CARDBOARD BOXES ON SHELVES. IT'S REALLY A SAD DEAL. AND THAT'S JUST THE CHOCTAWS. THEY'RE-THEY'RE ALL OTHER TRIBES HAVE THE SAME, UM, ISSUES THAT THEY'RE-THEY'RE DEALING WITH."

SOME AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICERS HAVE TRIED TO FORM MULTI-TRIBAL GROUPS TO MAKE THE NAGPRA PROCESS MORE EFFICIENT. UNFORTUNATELY, THOSE EFFORTS HAVE BEEN DENIED, BUT THE WORK CONTINUES. LITTLE BY LITTLE, ANCESTORS AND SACRED OBJECTS ARE REBURIED IN KEEP-SAFE CEMETERIES ON PROTECTED LAND. "OUR FIRST, UH, REBURIAL THERE WAS A MUSEUM THAT, HAD ONE OF OUR CHOCTAW WARRIORS ON DISPLAY BACK BEFORE THE LAW COME ABOUT. IN FACT, THEY-THEY TITLED THE, DISPLAY AS "A CHOCTAW WARRIOR." SO WE, UH, WE BROUGHT HIM HOME AND REBURIED HIM. HAD A NICE CEREMONY FOR HIM."

PRESERVING CULTURE DOESN'T JUST MEAN FINDING ARTIFACTS AND REBURYING ANCESTORS. AMERICAN INDIAN IDENTITY IS SURVIVING BY TEACHING OTHERS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AND WORKING IN COMMUNITIES. CULTURE CAMPS, NEWS ORGANIZATIONS, AND LANGUAGE PROGRAMS ARE STRENGTHENING INDIVIDUAL TRIBES. EVERY YEAR THE UNITED KEETOOWAH BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS IN OKLAHOMA HAS A CULTURE CAMP DURING SPRING BREAK. CHILDREN FROM AREA COMMUNITIES IN NORTHEAST OKLAHOMA PLAY TRADITIONAL GAMES, LISTEN TO STORIES, AND MAKE BASKETS AND CORNHUSK DOLLS. CHEROKEE ELDERS SHARE HISTORY, CULTURE, AND PERSONAL EXPERIENCES. SHARING AND PRESERVING INFORMATION ON A LARGER SCALE BEGAN WITH THE FIRST TRIBAL NEWSPAPER, THE CHEROKEE PHOENIX, WHICH STARTED CIRCULATION IN 1828. MANY AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES HAVE NEWSPAPERS THAT PRINT A WIDE RANGE OF STORIES AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION. SEVERAL OF THESE NEWSPAPERS ARE COLLECTED BY THE AMERICAN NATIVE PRESS ARCHIVES AT THE SEQUOYAH NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER IN ARKANSAS. OTHER OUTLETS INCLUDE TELEVISION. THE MUSCOGEE (CREEK) NATION COMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMENT BROADCASTS A WEEKLY PROGRAM CALLED NATIVE NEWS TODAY. THE STORIES RANGE FROM POLITICS TO TRIBAL ENTERPRISES TO HIGH SCHOOL EVENTS. PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS ABOUT CONTINUING EDUCATION LECTURES AND STOP SMOKING CAMPAIGNS RUN BETWEEN STORIES.

[SINGING].

ALL OF THIS INFORMATION SHARING IS PART OF PRESERVATION. LANGUAGE SHARING THROUGH WRITING AND SPEAKING KEEPS HISTORY AND CULTURE ALIVE. "CHOCTAW IS ONE OF OUR LARGEST MEMBER OF OUR MUSCOGEAN SPEAKING PEOPLE, OUR MUSCOGEAN LANGUAGE PEOPLE. AND BACK IN HISTORY, I GUESS THEY CAN GO BACK AS FAR AS 2000 B.C. WHEN, UH, UH, CHOCTAWS WERE IN THE SOUTHEAST. UH, I GUESS THE MOUND BUILDERS, I DON'T KNOW IF THEY-IF IT WAS THE CHOCTAWS, BUT IT WAS THE MUSCOGEAN SPEAKING PEOPLE. BUT, UH, WE SHARE THESE LANGUAGE WITH, UH, CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW, CREEK, SEMINOLE, ALABAMA, COUSHATTAS, HOUMA, AND TUNICA, BILOXI. YOU KNOW, THEY'RE ALL IN THE SOUTHEAST, UH, UNITED STATES. SO, UH, I THINK THE EUROPEAN, WHEN THEY CAME THROUGH THERE AROUND 1600 TO 1500, UH, THIS IS WHAT THEY WERE HEARING, AND, UH, THEY, UH, FIXED A BOOK OUT WHERE THIS IS WHAT THEY HEARD, AND IT'S-I THINK IT'S A TWELVE-HUNDRED WORD DICTIONARY, WHAT THEY CALL MOBILIAN DICTIONARY. AND I THINK WE HAVE A TWELVE-HUNDRED FIFTY WORD, AND EIGHTY PERCENT ARE CHOCTAWS. BUT THE SPELLING ARE IN EUROPEAN, ARE-THE ENGLISH, YOU KNOW, LIKE A PHONICS-WHAT-THIS IS WHAT THEY HEARD. AND SO AREA IS IN, UH, MISSISSIPPI, LOUISIANA, ALABAMA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA. YOU CAN SEE ALL THE CHOCTAW WORDS ALL THROUGH THERE. I CALL IT CHOCTAW, BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, IT'S STILL A MUSCOGEAN." "CHEROKEE CULTURE IS, UH-IT MEANS A LOT OF THINGS TO-TO A LOT OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE. UM, I THINK, UH, IT'S MOST READILY SEEN IN THE LANGUAGE AND HEARING, UH, HEARING THE PEOPLE THAT, UH, REMEMBER CHEROKEE AS A FIRST LANGUAGE, AND STILL USE IT. UM, AND THAT'S WHERE YOU SEE THE CULTURE, THROUGH THESE PEOPLE MOST EVIDENT. UM, BUT CULTURE IS ALSO THE HISTORY. UM, THERE IS A RICH AND LONG HISTORY OF, UH, CHEROKEE CULTURE THAT GOES BACK, UM, WELL BEFORE, UH, THE ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS HERE. UM, BUT CERTAINLY IT'S-BEGINS BEING RECORDED IN, YOU KNOW, THE 15-UH-40'S, UH, WHEN, UH, THE S-SPANISH EXPLORERS ARE FIRST ENCOUNTERING, UH, SOUTHEASTERN "I WORK AT THE CHEROKEE NATION'S EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. AND WE MAKE, UH, MULTIMEDIA WORK IN THE CHEROKEE LANGUAGE. UM, SO WE'VE, STARTED DOING, UM-GETTING THE ABILITY TO PUT WEBSITES ALL IN CHEROKEE, UM, DOING, INTERACTIVE MEDIA SUCH AS, VERSIONS OF FACEBOOK, AND, MY SPACE, BUT IT'S ALL, UM, IN

AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES ARE DISAPPEARING EVEN THOUGH TRIBES LIKE THE CHEROKEE NATION HAVE LARGE NUMBERS OF NATIVE SPEAKERS. THE CHEROKEE IMMERSION SCHOOL IS TEACHING THE CHEROKEE LANGUAGE BY USING EVERYDAY TECHNOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES. "WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IS GIVE IT THE ABILITY TO USE TECHNOLOGY. AND IF A KID'S WANTING TO, UH, BE ON THE INTERNET AND SOCIAL NETWORK WITH EACH OTHER, THEY CAN DO THAT, BUT THEY CAN DO IT IN CHEROKEE NOW. AND, UM, THE DEPARTMENT I WORK WITH, ROY BONEY, JR. AND MYSELF, AND WE'VE BEEN, DEVELOPING WITH APPLE AND CHRIS HARVEY FROM CANADA LANGUAGE GEEK, TO MAKE TEXT MESSAGING IN CHEROKEE. AND THAT WAY OUR KIDS WILL BE ABLE TO TEXT MESSAGE JUST LIKE EVERY OTHER KIDS ARE ABLE TO DO, BUT IT CAN BE IN OUR

SHARING CULTURES WITH COMMUNITIES ELECTRONICALLY OR FACE-TO-FACE CAN PLANT THE SEEDS FOR WIDER UNDERSTANDING. THE LEARNING GOES BEYOND A TEXTBOOK. WORKSHOPS AND EXHIBITS CAN FOSTER A SENSE OF KINSHIP. NATIVE WEB MEDIA GIVES IMMEDIATE CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE AND OPINION. "SO THE INDIAN COUNTRY COMMUNICATIONS BUSINESS HUB IS ABOUT, UH, COMMUNICATION, UH, EDUCATION, LITERATURE ENHANCEMENTS OF, THE NATIVE PERSPECTIVE, AND TRYING TO GET THAT INFORMATION OUT TO THE WORLD AND RESPOND TO THE NEED FOR INFORMATION ABOUT, AMERICAN INDIANS, AND ACTUALLY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE WESTERN HEMIS-HEMISPHERE FOR THE MOST PART. THE RANGE OF INFORMATION IS TREMENDOUS.

PAUL HAS ADDED SHORT, ONE- ON-ONE INTERVIEWS ABOUT AMERICAN INDIAN ISSUES TO INDIAN COUNTRY NEWS. THESE PIECES ARE THEN POSTED ONLINE UNDER THE LINK "INDIAN COUNTRY TV." LOCALLY, THE SEQUOYAH NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT LITTLE ROCK HOLDS ANNUAL SYMPOSIA TO GIVE NATIVE PEOPLE A FORUM, TO NETWORK AND FOR THE PUBLIC TO LEARN ABOUT AMERICAN INDIAN ISSUES. "WE, UH, INVITE ABOUT TWENTY INDIGENOUS SPEAKERS FROM THE U.S. AND CANADA EACH YEAR TO COME IN AND, UH, TALK TO THE PUBLIC. AND-AND ALL OF OUR-OUR EVENTS ARE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC. UM, THIS IS-THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OP-UH, ACTIVITIES THAT WE'VE PERFORMED. AND WHAT WE WANTED TO DO WITH THIS WAS TO, UM, HAVE A-A FORUM THAT WOULD BE OPEN TO INDIGENOUS SPEAKERS WHO WOULD COME IN AND AND TALK ABOUT WHAT ISSUES THEY WANTED TO, WHAT THEY THOUGHT WAS, YOU KNOW, IMPORTANT IN INDIAN COUNTRY."

SOME NON-NATIVE PEOPLE ARE HESITANT TO ASK NATIVE PEOPLE ABOUT THEIR BACKGROUNDS. IN DIFFERENT GROUPS AND IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, NATIVE PEOPLE ARE REFERRED TO AS AMERICAN INDIAN, NATIVE AMERICAN, INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, NATIVE PEOPLE AND UNFORTUNATELY, RACIAL SLURS. IF YOU WONDER HOW TO ADDRESS SOMEONE WHO IS AMERICAN INDIAN, RESPECTFULLY ASK ABOUT THEIR BACKGROUND. TRIBAL IDENTITY IS IMPORTANT AND USING STEREOTYPES IS RIDICULOUS. "ALMOST EVERYDAY SOMEBODY WILL ASK ME IF I'M NATIVE AMERICAN, AND I'LL TELL THEM, YES, I'M OF THE CHOCTAW NATION. AND, UH, A LOT OF TIMES THE QUESTION IS, DO YOU LIVE IN A TEEPEE? UM, AND, UH, I SAY, NO. I'VE GOT A LOG HOUSE THAT, UH, RESEMBLES A TEEPEE. IT'S GOT CATHEDRAL CEILINGS, BUT, UH, IT'S NOT A TEEPEE. AND, UH, SO I APPRECIATE THE AETN IN DOING THESE, UH, VIDEOS, EXPLAINING TO NOT ONLY THE CHILDREN, BUT THEIR PARENTS, EVERYBODY IN ARKANSAS THAT, UH, IT'S NOT THE WAY IT WAS IN THE 1800'S WITH THE NATIVE AMERICANS. THAT, UH, WE, TOO, HAVE CHANGED, AND WE'RE PART OF THE COMMUNITY AS FAR AS, UH, HELPING WITH OTHER PEOPLE."

APPROXIMATELY ONE PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES IS LISTED AS AMERICAN INDIAN. ONE THIRD LIVE ON RESERVATIONS OR IN NATIVE COMMUNITIES. THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION LIVE ACROSS THE COUNTRY, WORKING IN EVERY INDUSTRY AND LIVING IN EVERY KIND OF NEIGHBORHOOD. "AMERICAN INDIAN IDENTITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. UM, YOU KNOW, WE'RE STILL HERE, YOU KNOW. WE'RE STILL HERE. AND WE DO A MYRIAD OF THINGS, YOU KNOW. UH, YOU KNOW, INDIAN COUNTRY, THERE'S-THERE'S REALLY NO SUCH THING AS INDIAN COUNTRY, YOU KNOW, BECAUSE THERE'S NOT ONE PLACE YOU CAN GO TO AND SAY THIS IS HOW INDIANS ARE. YOU KNOW? UH, WE'RE ALL OVER, YOU KNOW. AND WE'RE A PART-WE'RE WOVEN INTO THE FABRIC OF DIVERSITY THAT IS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. WE'RE THE-I THINK WE'RE PROBABLY ONE OF THE FIRST THREADS."

[INDIAN DRUM MUSIC]