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War in the 60's

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When Arkansas seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861 it was a divided state, politically and economically. During the war, it was the site of major military engagements such as the Battle of Pea Ridge, which effectively saved Missouri for the Union, and the Battle of Prairie Grove, the bloodiest conflict west of the Mississippi River. It was also one of the most difficult places for civilians to live, as both armies devoured or destroyed everything in their paths.

War in the 60s is an hour-long documentary film that recounts the military history and the human story of what happened in Arkansas during the American civil war. Through interviews with historians, and the words of soldiers and Arkansas citizens who experienced the war, the documentary helps viewers understand what it was like to live in Arkansas during this tragic time in America’s history, and how the war changed the state forever.

Photographed in locations across the state, War in the 60s is the last film produced by Jack Hill, one of the most prolific documentarians of Arkansas history, and the first full-length piece on Civil War Arkansas in more than 20 years. Jack Hill died in July 2012.

Funding for this program was provided by the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program.

TRANSCRIPT

PRAIRIE GROVE BATTLEFIELD STATE PARK NORTHWEST ARKANSAS JUST WEST OF FAYETTEVILLE. THERE WILL BE A REENACTMENT TODAY OF THE CIVIL WAR BATTLE THAT OCCURRED ON THIS GROUND DECEMBER 7, 1862 AND THAT DAY WAS MUCH LIKE THIS ONE, SUNNY AND COLD, ABOUT 1,000 REENACTORS WILL TAKE PLACE AND IT'S THE STATE'S LARGEST CIVIL WAR REENACTMENT AND IT HAPPENS EVERY EVEN NUMBERED YEARS. (FIFE PLAYING).

BY 1:00 O'CLOCK A CROWD HAS GATHERED AND THE REENACTMENT BEGINS. ALL THIS FITTINGS THE DESCRIPTIONS OF SOLDIERS FROM 1862 AND ONE WROTE OF THE INFANTRY THEY WILL REMEMBER THE MUSKETRY UNINTERPRETED FOR FULL 33 HOURS EACH ADVANCING AND RETRIEVING. A SOLDIER FELT LUCKY TO SURVIVE AND THE BULLELS WERE FLYING AND EVERYONE WAS STRUCK. THE REENACTMENT IS GRAPHED TO GIVE AN IDEA WHAT A CIVIL WAR BATTLEFIELD LOOKS LIKE AND FEELS LIKE. AT PRAIRIE GROVE IT'S A GRAND THING, BUT THE REALITY IS ELSEWHERE. IT'S IN THESE PLACES. THE CIVIL WAR CEMETERIES OF ARKANSAS,. SOLDIERS ARE BURIED IN THREE NATIONAL CEMETERIES AT FORT SMITH AND FAYETTEVILLE AND LITTLE ROCK AND THE CONFEDERATE CEMETERIES, ABOUT A N OF THEM SO ARKANSAS PROVIDES A CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS.OUSANDS OF

I AM JACK HILL AND THIS IS THE CONFEDERATE CEMETERY AT VAN BUREN. THERE WERE ENGAGE MENTS IN THE STATE, 772 AND IT'S A REMINDER THAT THE CIVIL WAR WAS FOUGHT RIGHT HERE IN ARKANSAS. THE DRUMS OF WAR ALREADY COULD BE HEARD WHEN DELEGATES GATHERED IN THE STATE HOUSE ON LITTLE ROCK ON MAY 6, 1861. THE QUESTION OF SECEDING FROM THE UNION. SEVEN STATES ALREADY HAD AND PRESIDENT LINCOLN CALLED FOR 75,000 TROOPS TO PUT DOWN THE REBELLION. DELEGATES DEBATED THE UNTIL UNTIL FOUR THAT AFTERNOON AND A SUCCESSION WAS PASSED ON A VOTE OF 69-ONE.

AND THE UNION NOW EXISTING BETWEEN THE STATE OF ARKANSAS AND THE OTHER STATES UNDER THE NAME OF UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS THEREBY FOREVER DISINVOLVED.

ISAAC MURPHY A NATIVE OF MADISON COUNTY CAST THE ONLY VOTE AGAINST SUCCESSION. SLAVERY WAS THE CENTRAL ISSUE OF THE CIVIL WAR AND ABOUT FOUR AND A HALF MILLION SLAVES IN THE SOUTH AND 100,000 IN ARKANSAS. THEY PROVIDED CHIEF LABOR. THE SOUTH'S PLANTATION SYSTEM WASN'T POSSIBLE WITHOUT THEM.

AT THE TIME ARKANSAS WAS HAVING AN ECONOMIC BOOM UNPARALLELED TO ITS HISTORY. ARKANSAS RANKED 16TH AMONG THE STATES IN WEALTH PER CAPRA PER CAPITA A RANK WE WOULDN'T GET AGAIN AND IT'S WRAPPED UP IN SLAVES AND CONCENTRATED IN THE STATE.

MOST OF THE TROOPS RAISED IN ARKANSAS WILL FIGHT FOR THE SOUTH LIKE THEEN A VOLUNTEER INFANTLY FROM NORTHWEST ARKANSAS AND MUSTERED IN AT ARKADELPHIA. LARKIN BUNCH GOT A GROUP TOGETHER JUST WEEKS AFTER ARKANSAS LEFT THE UNION. THIS IS A COPY OF THE COMPANY'S MUSTERED ROLE AND INCLUDES THE NAMES OF 73 MEN AND MARCHED TO FORT SMITH WHERE THEY ARRIVED ON JUNE 9, 1861. BUNCH IS IDENTIFIED AS THE CAPTAIN. HE WAS 34 YEARS OLD, 6 FEET TALL WITH A DARK COMPLETION AND DARK HAIR AND BLUE EYES.

IN REVIEWING LARKIN BUNCH'S DOCUMENTATION THAT WE HAVE HERE AMONG THE OTHER DOCUMENTATION IT WAS OBVIOUS WHAT WE WOULD CALL IN TODAY'S LANGUAGE A FARMER. HOWEVER, IN HIS THE LANGUAGE OF MUCH OF THIS DOCUMENTATION HE WAS CONSIDERED BY HIS PEERS AS AN HONEST TILLAR OF THE SOIL.

THESE REENACTORS CAME FROM MEMPHIS AT HELENA AND THE TROOP THEY BOUGHT IS AN ORIGINAL FROM A CIVIL WAR BATTLEFIELD. IT'S ALMOST CERTAINLY AS KILLED PEOPLE.

THIS WOULD PENETRATE AND KNOCK DOWN TREES DURING A BATTLE WHEN YOU GET THROUGH WITH THE BATTLE THE FIELD THAT IT WAS FOUGHT OVER TYPICALLY WOULD BE NOTHING BUT STUMPS. IT WAS HORRIBLE. THEY WOULD DEBOWEL A PERSON, CUT THEM IN TWO, TAKE A ARM OFF, TAKE A LEG OFF.

WILSON'S CREEK SOUTHWEST MISSOURI ABOUT 10 MILES FROM SPRINGFIELD. IN AUGUST 1861 A GROUP OF MEN WERE CAMPED ALONG HERE INCLUDING TROOPS FROM ARKANSAS. SUN UP AT WILSON'S CREEK ABOUT AUGUST 10 WAS WAS LIKE THIS DAY AND MEN REMEMBER A READING MIDST IN THE AREA AND THE UNION ARMY LAUNC SURPRISE ATTACK ON THE CONFEDERATES AND THEY ROLLED UP THE CONFEDERATE LINES. FOR MOST MENS ON BOTH SIDES IT WOULD BE THE FIRST TASTE OF COMBAT, A CHANCE TO SEE THE ELEPHANT AS HEY WOULD PUT IT. ON THE CONFEDERATE SIDE PULASKI BATTERY WAS HERE AND OPENED FIRE. OMAR WEAVER WAS A LIEUTENANT WITH THE BATTERY AND JUST TURNED AWAY FROM HIS GUN WHEN HE WAS HIT.

HE WAS SHOT AND BROKE HIS ARM AND HIS BR AND HE SAID 'M DONE FOR. CAN YOMOVE ME?" YES, IMMEDIAY AND CAPTAIN PULASKI LIGHT BATTERY.

WE HAVE BEEN THE FIRST ARKANSANS TO DI BATTLE BUT IT WAS NOT WITH VAIN.

IT WAS THE PULASKI FORCES THAT HELD THEM IN PLACE AND LONG ENOUGH BLE THE CONFEDERATE FORCES TO GET SUFFICIENTLY ORGANIZE TO EVENTUALLY WIN THE BATTLE.

AS FOR LARKIN BUNCH THOSE RECORDS IN FAYETTEVILLE INDICATE HE WAS AT WILSON'S CREEK TOO AND SURVIVED. THE WHITE RIVER AT BATESVILLE AND THE REALITY CAME HERE OR OAK HILLS AS THE CONFEDERATE CALLED IT.

THE BODIES OF JOE NEAL, MR. CANNON AND GARRETT WERE BROUGHT HERE ELVENA MAXFIELD SEPTEMBER 13, 1861.

THE OLD ROAD NORTHWEST ARKANSAS BENTON COUNTY IN FEBRUARY 1862 IT WAS ALIVE WITH MARCHING MEN. THE UNION ARMY FROM THE SOUTHWEST CAME FROM SPRINGFIELD LOOKING FOR CONFEDERATES. THE WAR HAD APPROVE ARRIVED IN ARKANSAS AND EARL VAN DORN TOOK COMMAND IN THE CAMPS AT FAYETTEVILLE. VAN DORN HAD A PLAN.

THE CITY IS OURS. THE STATE IS OURS. I WILL GIVE BATTLE. I HAVE NO DOUBT OF THE RESULT.

THEY WERE 200 MILES FROM THEM IN MISSOURI TO PROTECT THE SUPPLY LINE HE HAD TO DROP THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ALONG THE WAY AND ONLY HAD 10,000 FOR BATTLE. THE CONFEDERATES HAD CONSOLIDATED. IT BEGAN TO SNOW IN THE AREA AND THEY MOVED NORTH. THEY WERE TRAVELING LIGHT. EACH MAN WAS TO CARRY HIS WEAPON, 40 ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION, RATIONS FOR THREE DISPAIS A BLANKET BUT THE CONFEDERATES WERE COMING AT A 3-2 ADVANTAGE IN MANPOWER AND A ADVANTAGE IN ARTILLERY.

NEVER DID A GROUP GO OFF WITH SUCH MUCH FIRE AND MANPOWER. THE PROBLEM WAS THIS WAS A MAKE OR BREAK OPERATION AND IT HAD TO GO AS PLANNED OR IT WOULD GO TO PIECES.

THEY BEGAN A NIGHT MARCH AROUND IT ON THE BENTONVILLE DETOUR. ON FRIDAY MARCH 7 AS DAWN WAS BREAKING OVER THE OZARKS THEY BEGAN TO GO ON THE TELEGRAPH ROAD AND CIRCLED THE ENEMY AND HEADED FOR THE SUPPLY LINE. THEY WERE GOING TO THE TAVERN AND SHOTS RAN OUT AND THE BATTLE WAS ON. CONFEDERATE MEN RAN TO CONFRONT THE THREAT AND THE WOUNDED WERE STREAMING TOWARD THE TAVERN.

IT DIDN'T SEEM POSSIBLE THAT ANY OF US COULD GET OUT ALIVE AND THE BURSTING OF SHELLS AND THE RATTLING AND SQUEAKING OF THE WOUNDED AND THE MUSIC OF DEVILS AND HARVEST OF DEATH.

STILL ON THE DETOUR WAS GENERAL MACK MACK AND OUT FRANKING THE TROOPS AND BUZZY TROOPS RACE THRD AND ERWHELMED BY THE CAVALRY CHARGE.

I HAVE READ IN HISTORY AND DEPICTED THE HORRORS AND I WITNESS TODAY.

HERY DYSART OF THE CAVALRY JOTTED DOWN THESE WORDS THAT Y STILL HERE AT PEORIA MILITARY PARK. IN EVERY DIRECTION I SAW MY COMRADES RUNNING AND CRUSHING EACH OTHER TO THE GROUND. THEY RAN IN EVERY DIRECTION. ORDER GAVE WAY TO DISCONTRIBUTION.

THEY CAPTURED SEVERAL ARTILLERY PIECES AND COMMANDED THE CHEROKEES AS A BRIGADIER GENERAL AND RESPOND TO CHARGES THAT SOME OF THE INDIANS SCALPED SOME OF THE DEAD. GENERAL MCCULLOCH CAME FORWARD AND SHOT AND KILLED. JAMES JAMES MCINTOSH WAS KILLED TOO. JUST TO THE EAST COLONEL AND THE INFANTRY WENT FORWARD. MEN COLLAPSED FROM HUNGER AND FATIGUE AND STUCK BELLED INTO THE UNION LINE.

A TREMENDOUS THING OPENED UP AND A LINE OF SMOKE AROUND US AND THE BULLETS [INAUDIBLE]

AND HE WAS IN THE CHAIN OF KOOM MAND.

WITH ALL OF THE LEADERS DOWN HIS DIVISION REMAINS INACTIVE SO IT MEANS A CHANCE FOR THE CONFEDERATES TO SWEEP THEM OFF THE DAY IS LOST.

CAMP FIRES FLICKERED AS TIME CAME AND BROUGHT AN END TO THE DAY'S YOU FIGHTING. IT WOULD BE A NIGHT OF ANGUISH AS NOTED BY A CONFEDERATE IN THE WOODS BY TELEGRAPH ROAD.

IT WAS COLD AND IT WAS PITIFUL TO HEAR THE WOUNDED CALLING OUT FOR WATER AND SOMETHING TO KEEP THEM WARM. I HOPE I NEVER HEAR THAT SUFFERING AGAIN.

HENRY DYSART HUDDLED WITH HIS JOURNAL AND WROTE ABOUT THE HORRORS.

HE MAKES CERTAIN THAT THE MEN ARE SUPPLIED WITH FOOD AND WATER SO THE NEXT MORNING THEY'RE READY TO GO AGAIN BUT NOTHING LIKE THIS HAPPENS ON THE CONFEDERATE SIDE. EVEN WORSE VAN DORN DISCOVERS HE LOST TRACK OF THE AMMUNITION TRAIN. THIS IS THE MOST CRITICAL ERROR IN A CAMPAIGN THAT IS AWASH IN ERRORS.

THE SECOND DAY AT PEA RIDGE LEFT MAN IN AWE.

IT WAS TERRIFIC AND THE REPORTS WERE COUNTED IN AN HOUR.

FINALLY THE UNION ARMY LEAPED FORWARD ON LINE, RANK UPON RANK. VAN DORN HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO DISENGAGE AND THE LACK OF AMMUNITION BROUGHT IT TO AN END.

I SHOUTED VICTORY, VICTORY, SUCH SHOUTS AS YOU NEVER HEARD FROM MORTALS AND OUR MEN DID IT.

WHAT HE ACCOMPLISHED WAS REMARKABLE. NOT ONLY DID HE WIN A SPECTACULAR VICTORY AGAINST OPPOSING ODDS BUT CHANGED THE COURSE OF THE ARE WAR. PEA RIDGE SAVED MISSOURI FOR THE UNION AND FOR THAT REASON IT'S THE MOST IMPORTANT CIVIL WAR BATTLE WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.

JUNE PEA RIDGE NATIONAL MILITARY PARK AND CONGRESS SET THESE BATTLEFIELDS ASIDE FOR STUDIES BY TODAY'S SOLDIERS AND IN A HOT DAY PEOPLE HIKE ACROSS THE RIDGE AND WITH TICKS AND POSSIBLY POISON IVY AND CAME TO ONE OF THE PRESERVED BATTLEFIELDS AND PEA RIDGE LOOKS LIKE IT DID IN 1862. NO WONDER IT'S POPULAR FOR STAFF RIDES. THE MISSISSIPPI, ON THIS SIDE, THE WEST SIDE WAS KNOWN AS THE TRANS MISSISSIPPI. STATES NEAR THE RIVER ON THE OTHER SIDE RE THE WESTERN THEATER. IN APRIL 1862 AROUND A CHURCH OF SHILOH MEETING HOUSE IN WEST TENNESSEE THE THEATER WOULD SEE A SIGNIFICANT BATTLE AND CONFEDERATE TROOPS WERE THERE, THOUSANDS OF THEM. EARLY ON SUNDAY MARCH 6 CONFEDERATES SLAMMED INTO THE CAMP TO SURROUND THE CHURCH. THIS WAS BIG WAR COMPARED TO LITTLE WAR BACK IN ARKANSAS. THE ARMIES AT SHILOH NUMBERED IN THE TENS OF THOUSANDS. THE CARNAGE WAS BEYOND BELIEVE. NO ONE HAD SEEN ANYTHING LIKE IT. CASUALTIES AT SHILOH WERE ALL THAN ALL AMERICAN WARS BEFORE AND SHILOH PROVIDES SOME OF THE MOST ICONIC -- THERE WAS THE PEACH ORCHARD AND THE BLOSSOMS REMI THEM OF BLOODY SNOW AND THE POND WHERE MEN BATHED AND THE HORSES AND DIED IN THE RIVER AND STAIN TODAY DARK RED AND THERE WAS THE HEARNET'S NEST AND NEWS REACHED EL DORADO AND THE FAMILY SENT TWO SONS TO THE CONFEDERATE ARMY. TIMOTHY SURVIVED BUT JAMES NEWTON A CAPTAIN DID NOT AND ELVENA MAXFIELD CONTINUED TO WRITE IN HER DIARY.

WE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT A BLESSING PEACE WAS UNTIL WE LOST IT.

THERE IS A ARKANSAS MONUMENT IN SHILOH IN MEMORY OF THE MEN WHO FOUGHT HERE EVEN THOUGH THE BATTLE WAS A UNION VICTORY.

THIS MONUMENT IS ONE OF THE FIRST CONFEDERATE MONUMENTS SET UP AND MOST DON'T HAVE MONUMENTS AROUND THAT TIME AND IT SHOWS THEY HAVE PRIDE WHAT ARKANSAS TROOPS ACCOMPLISHED IN THIS BATTLE AND THEIR PARTICIPATION.

PATRICK CLEBURNE WAS A BRIGADE COMMANDER AT SHILOH AND ONE OF HIS FAMES AS A LEADER. THIS INSTITUTE IN DOWNTOWN LITTLE ROCK PROVIDES AN EXAMPLE OF THE CIVIL WAR AND INFORMATION IN LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS AND OTHER PLACES. FOR EXAMPLE THE INSTITUTE HAS OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE CIVIL WAR. THE SLAVE NARRATIVES ARE HERE TOO, VOLUMES AND VOLUMES OF THEM. THERE ARE THE HISTORICAL QUARTERLIES INCLUDING INDEPENDENCE COUNTY THAT PUBLISHED A TRANSCRIPT OF THE ELVENA MAXFIELD JOURNALS AND THEN THE BOOKS AND DOZENS WITH A CIVIL WAR THEME. THEN AGAIN THEY WERE ON MARCH IN ARKANSAS. THE ARMY LEFT PEA RIDGE AND WENT TO WEST PLAINS AND TURNED SOUTH AND HEADED TOWARDS BATESVILLE.

WELL, I WAS NEVER MORE MAD AND SURPRISEED IN MY LIFE. AT THEY'RE CAMPED ALL AROUND US AND I CAN'T LOOK OUT WITHOUT SEEING THE DEVILS. ELVENA MAXFIELD, MAY 3, 1862.

GENERAL CURTIS IS STILL HOPING FOR LITTLE ROCK. BATESVILLE GAVE THE TROOPS A RESTING PLACE.

I RECEIVED AN INVITATION WITH FEDERAL OFFICERS. I WILL NEVER GO. I THINK ANY LADY THAT GOES TO THEIR PARTECSEE THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE. ELVENA MAXFIELD.

FEDERAL TROOPS EATING AROUND EATING UP EVERYTHING TAKING HORSES AND MULES RUINING MANY A MAN. SEEMS LIKE WE ARE STARING STARVATION IN THE FACE. DELBERT MCGUIRE.

THIS PROVIDED A MEANS OF SUPPLY AND BOATS WENT UP EIND HAY FOR THE ARMY'S HORSES AND MULES. THEY WERE PROTECTING THE CONVEY. AT ST. CHARLES IT ENGAGED FEDERAL CANON AND WAS THE VICTIM OF THE SINGLE DEADLIEST SHOTS OF THE CIVIL WAR.

A SHELL CENTERED THE CITY AND RELEASING STEAM INTO THE VESSEL WHICH CREATED A NIGHTMARE THERE. MANY MEN WERE BURNED OR LEAPT TO THE WATER AND SHOT OR DROWNED. OF THE 175 BOARD AMONG THE MOUND CITY ONLY 25 WERE NOT INJURED AND THE REST DIED AND THAT SINGLE SHOT RESULTED IN THE [INAUDIBLE] SUFFERED BY THE SOLDIERS IN THE FURTHER AND WITH THE LACK OF WATER SUPPLY KIRTIS DOES SOMETHING REMARKABLE.

HE CUTS HIS LINE AND ADVANCES ACROSS THE DELTA AND FEEDS THE TROOPS ON THE COUNTY SIDE AND THIS IS RISKY AND NO ONE HAD DONE IT BEFORE.

AND ELVENA MAXFIELD CONTINUED TO WRITE IN THAT DIARY. 2 PEACE, PEACE -- WILL I EVER

WHEN YOU THINK HOW OPTIMISTIC THEY WERE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR. THEY THOUGHT THIS WAS GOING TO BE OVER QUICKLY HOW DEVASTATING WHEN IT WASN'T OVER QUICKLY AND THE BODY COUNT RISES.

THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO BE ECONOMIC WARFARE BUT IT HAS THAT AFFECT AS ONE ARKANSANS OBSERVED.

NO COUNTRY CAN BE EVER LAID VEE ERNG HAS BEEN DEVOURED AND NOT CONTENT WITH FORAGING EVERYTHING THAT COULDN'T BE EATEN WAS DESTROYED.

ANOTHER THING THAT IS BEING DESTROYED IS SLAVERY. THE UNION ARMY IS ISSUING EMANCIPATION PAPERS LEFT AND RIGHT AND THE ARMY IS FOLLOWED BY A LONG COLUMN OF THOUSANDS OF BLACK ARKANSAS MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN SEEKING AN UNCERTAIN FREEDOM. ONE OFFICER SAID THEY WERE AROUND THE CAMP AS IFOR THEM TO SEIZE THAT FREEDOM. THEY BELIEVE THAT GOD DIDN'T INTEND FOR THEM TO BE SLAVES AND HE WAS USING THIS WAR TO BRING THAT FREEDOM ABOUT.

A COMMANDER IN HELENA CALLED FOR PEOPLE TO USE EVERY MEANS TO HINDER THE ENEMY.

ATTACK HIM DAY AND NIGHT. KILL AND LAY IN AMBUSH AND SURPRISE HIS ATTACHMENTS. SHOOT HIS MOUNTED OFFICERCH AND ON JU 1862 LEAD ELEMENTS OF THE PARKING MET THERE AND WENT INTO HELENA UNOPPOSED AND THE MISSISSIPPI PROVIDED SUPPLIES. HELENA WAS ABOUT A TOWN OF 1500 WHEN THEY ARRIVED AND SOLDIERS SET UP CAMP AND IT ALMOST DISAPPEARED BECAUSE THE TROOPS TO GO EVERYTHING AND UNHEALTHY. DISEASE KILLED MORE MEN THAN BATTLE DID AND OVER IN NORTHWEST ARKANSAS THIS SOLDIER NOTED TO HIS WIFE IN A LETTER ON SEPTEMBER 10, 1862.

DEAR LIZA THIS LEAVES ME WELL AND THE HEALTH OF THE BOYS GOOD. WE LEFT FOUR OF THE BOYS 4-MILES FROM FAYETTEVILLE. WE WERE ORDERED TO STAY HERE UNTIL WE ARE ARMED SO PRESENT. LARKIN BUNCH.

WILLIAM BAXTER A UNION MAN IN FAYETTEVILLE WROTE AND PUBLISHED A BOOK DURING THE WAR.

WE BECAME ACCUSTOMED TO THE BUGLE IN YEARS PAST OF THE COLLEGE BELL AND THE CLAIRCHG WAS AS SIMILAR AS THE SOUNDS OF PEACEFUL LIFE HAD BEEN. SAD, SAD. HOUSES WERE DESERTED. NEARLY ALL OF THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND THE FARMS LAID WASTE.

NOVEMBER 14. TODAY I SAW TROOP FOCUS ARE THE FIRST TIME. I HID THE CHILDREN IN THE CELLAR.

SHE HAD REASON FOR FEAR. HER VILLAGE SUPPORTED THE UNION. THE CAL VARLY PASSED THIS WAY TO SCREEN ANOTHER CONFEDERATE ARMY ABOUT TO MARCH INTO THE AREA. > WHEN THE 23RD THEY DID TAKE THE PIGS AND CHICKEN.

THIS IS CANE HILL A RIDGE IN SOUTHWEST WASHINGTON COUNTY. THE GENERAL ISOLATED A DIVISION INTO THIS PLACE WITH A HELP OF A SMALL BATTLE, A BATTLE OF MAWR BUT IT LASTED NINE HOURS AND THEY WERE COMMANDED BY JAMES BLUNT AND DREW HIM DEEPER INTO ARKANSAS AND 100-MILES FROM THEE BETWEEN VAN BUREN AND FORT SMITH IT WAS AN ARTERY OF RESUPPLY FOR THE CORPS AND FOR THE TRANS MISSISSIPPI. THE BULK OF THE ARMY CROSSED ON NOVEMBER 29. ITS MISSION TO CLEAR UNION FORCES FROM THIS PART OF ARKANSAS. AT FORT SMITH THE GENERAL CREATED A FORWARD BASE OF SUPPLY. AROUND THE COURTHOUSE IN VAN BUREN THERE TO HOSPITALS AND THE GENERAL COBBLED A FORCE OF 12,000 MEN AND NOT WELL TRAINED OR SUFFICIENTLY EQUIPPED THEY REPRESENTED A THREAT OF OVERWHELMING BLUNT'S DIVISION AT CANE HILL. BLUNT RESPONDED PREDICTABLY.

I DO NOT INTEND TO LEAVE THIS POSITION WITHOUT A FIGHT.

ON DECEMBER 3 THE GROUP MARCHED OUT OF VAN BUREN AND SO DID UNION REINFORCEMENTS NEARING SPRINGFIELD 110 MILES AWAY. ON 30-MILES TO REACH CANE HILL BUT IT'S OVER DIFFICULT TERRAIN IN ARKANSAS, THE MOUNTAINS. FOR THE TROOPS THE DISTANCE SEEMED IMPOSSIBLY FAR AND UNDER THE COMMAND OF A DYNAMIC YOUNG GENERAL IN THE ARMY. WHEN NIGHT CAME AFTER THE FIRST DAY'S MARCH HERRON'S MEN FELT THE EFFECT ACCORDING TO A SOLDIER.

WE CAMPED BY A BIG RE RE NOT MARCHING IN A COHESIVE GROUP. THEY WERE STRAGGLING AND STRUNG OUT FOR MILES ON A PRIMITIVE ROAD BUT STILL AVERAGING 35 MILES A DAY. NO OTHER MARCH IN THE CIVIL WAR WAS LIKE THIS ONE.

DOWN IN THE MOUNTAINS THE TROOPS ONLY MARCHED 10-MILES AND THEN 12 THE NEXT BUT THEN LEAD ELEMENTS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY WERE COMING UP THE VALLEY AND THEY WERE HETHE ARKANSAS STATE LINE. THE TAVERN CAME INTO SIGHT.

WE HAD A MARCH TODAY AND MANY CAN BARELY WALK.

THINGS WERE GETTING MORE SERIOUS AND TIME WAS RUPPING OUT FOR BLUNT'S MEN AND COULD ONLY WONDER WHAT THG ERWAS SPECULATI WHICH ARMY WOULD BE DISPERSED AND THEN IT WAS SETTLED. I COULD SEE THE FIRES, THE SOUNDS OF THE AXES AROUND THE MOUNTAIN AS TO BLOCK US IN.

HERRON'S COMMAND WAS MARCHING IN THE NIGHT AND DIDN'T STOP. THE LIGHTS OF FAYETTEVILLE CAME INTO VIEW DECEMBER 7 AT 3:00 O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING, A SUNDAY. MEN COLLAPSEED IN THE IMMEDIATELY.

HERRON LOST HALF OF THE STRENGTH ON TELEGRAPH ROAD BUT ARRIVED WITH FIGHTING MEN AND NO TIME TO SPEAR.

HE LEARNED THAT UNION REINFORCEMENTS WERE IN FAYETTEVILLE. HE CHANGED PLANS. HIS PLAFN CANE HILL WILL WAIT UNTIL HE TOOK CARE OF HERRON. PRAIRIE GROVE RIDGE IS 10 MILES WEST OF FAYETTEVILLE AND TROOPS TOOK THEIR POSITIONS ALONG THE RIDGE.

SO HE OPENS THE BATTLE RIDGE THE EFFECT OF THE UNION BOMBARDMENT WAS DEVASTATING AS ONE CONFEDERATE NOTED.

ARTILLERY FILLED THE WOODS, TORE AWAY TREES LIKE A HURRICANE.

THE GENERAL HEARD THE BATTLE AND GOT HIS MEN MOVING TOWARD PRAIRIE GROVE AND MEAN LEFT THE ROAD AND WENT THROUGH THE WOODS AND HOARON ATTACKED THE RIDGE, TOWARD THE HOUSE.

THE FIGHTING WAS THE MOST DESPERATE I WITNESSED. THE HEAD WAS SHOT OUT OF THE HORSE. IT WAS HORRIFIC.

A RETREATING INDIANA SOLDIER AGREED.

AS WE WERE ON THE SCREEN AND THE BULLETS WERE FLYING AND EVERYONE WAS STRUCK EITHER ON THE PERSON OR CLOTHING. I WAS ONLY ONE OF THREE THAT DIDN'T RECEIVE THE MARK OF A

WAS HAV [INAUDIBLE] CAN CANISTER AND OFTEN RANG ABOVE THIS.

BLUNT'S ARRIVAL ON THE FIELD SAVED THE DAY BUT IT WAS A MIRACLE THAT HERRON'S COMMAND WASN'T ANNIHILATED.

THEY LEFT AND LEFT THE CARNAGE TO THE UNION AND THE VI BEGAN ARRIVE. I WENT TO ONE OF THE RECEPTACLES OF THE WOUNDED. THE ENTIRE FLOOR WAS COVERED WITH BLEEDING MEN. SOME WERE MORTALLY WOUNDED. THE LIMBS OF OTHERS WERE SHATTERED AND USELESS. THE FIGURES OF OTHERS DISFIGURED BARELY HUMAN. WILLIAM BAXTER.

THE CASUALTY REPORTS FROM PRAIRIE GROVE REACHED PRESIDENT LINCOLN. I SHALL NEVENE THE S OF TWO ILLINOIS OFFICERS THE PRESIDENT WEPT. WITH ITS CONTROL OF THE MISSISSIPPI THE UNION COULD EASILY MOVE LARGE NUMBERS OF TROOP BY WATER THUS THREATENING CONFEDERATES ALONG THE RIVER THAT EMPTIED INTO THE MISSISSIPPI. AT THE ARKANSAS POST CONFEDERATES CONSTRUCTED A POST TO PROTECT LITTLE ROCK. THIS WAS 190 FEET SQUARE AND REFOTHE UNION IT WAS AN INVITING TARGET AND IN JANUARY 1863 THEY CAME TO TAKE IT.

THE EXPEDITION AGAINST ARKANSAS POST IS ONE OF THE LARGEST IN THE FACE OF THE INSPECT IN PREVIOUS EXPEDITIONS. 32,000 TROOPS, DOZENS OF TRANSPORTS AND BOATS WERE BROUGHT UP THE RIVER TO DO THE ASSAULT SO IT'S A THEY SLIP AWA COME BY AND SHE CAME TO HELENA IN 1863 AND RECENTLY FREED SLAVES MADE A BIG IMPRESSION.

THE CONTRABAND IT'S MY HEART DID ACHE FOR THEM. THE GOVERNMENT GIVES THEM RATIONS BUT THEY CAN'T ALL GET WORK.

BUT THIN HELENA. THEY WERE RECRUITED FOR THE ARMY AND SEEN IN UNION BLUE SOMETHING THAT WOULD BE UNTHINKABLE BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR. MOST OF THE TROOPS AT HELENA WERE MIDWESTERN SOLDIERS. IT WAS DIFFICULT TO ADJUST TO THE SEMI TROPICAL CLIMATE OF THE AREA. GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS AMONG THOSE THNOT FIT FOR E WROTE S ER A WHITE MAN TO LIVE IN. IF I GET OUT OF HERE I DON'T WANT TO REVISIT HELENA ANYTIME SOON.

READY? FIRE.

THE 12TH UNITED STATES COLORED ARTILLERY A REENACTMENT GROUP CAME TO HELENA AND THERE IS A WHITE OFFICER COMMANDING THE BLACK TROOPS AS IT WAS BACK THEN. ROBERT BELL IS FIRST 12AND STUDIED HISTORY IN ARKANSAS.

ARKANSAS WOULD HAVE BATTERIES AND LIGHT ARTILLERY. THESE WERE RAISED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES WAR DEPARTMENT, A TOTAL AFRICAN-AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT FROM ARKANSAS WAS 5526 MEN. THERE WERE 26 ENGAGEMENTS IN ARKANSAS THAT INVOLVED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS.

DOWN RIVER FROM HEL 8631 OF THE CIVIL WAR'S MOST CAM PAINS DRAWING TO A CLOSE. IN ARKANSAS CONFEDERATE GENERAL HOM R HOLMES REALIZED IF HE COULD TAKE HELENA THE PRESSURE WOULD BE RELIEVED BUT THE CENTER PIECE WAS FORTKIRTIS NAMED AFTER THE COMMANDER. AND BEYOND TI BATTERIES DOMIE ROADS INTO TOWN AND WITH RIFLE PITS. THE TREES WERE CUT TO PROVIDE CLEAR FIELDS OF FIRE. JULY 4, 1863 WAS A SATURDAY. UNION OFFICERS HAD THE UNION GARRISON UP AND UNDER ARMS AT 230 DETERMINED NOT TO BE CAUGHT BY SURPRISE. FOG SOMETIMES SHROUDS THE DELTA AND IT SETTLED OVER THE LANDSCAPE THAT MORNING. COED ATTACK TO START AT DAY LIGHT. GENERAL PRICE THOUGHT IT WAS SUN RISE AND THEY STARTED LATER THAN OTHERS AND WITHOUT SUPPORT.

IT WAS AN EXCITING SEEN AND THE ARMY GOING UP THE HILL SCREAMING AT THE TOP OF THEIR VOICES.

WE PICKED THEM OFF AS THEY MARCHED UP THE HILLS AND WE WERE BEHIND TREES AND STUMPS AND THEY WOULD FALL MANY AT G LIFTD AND THEIR HELP AND BUILDINGS SHOCK FROM THE CONCESSION AND AT THIS HOUSE THE KIDS WERE STUFFED INTO THE FIREPLACE FOR PROTECTION FROM THE FALLING PLASTER. BY MORNING IT WAS QUIET AND CONFEDERATES REPULSED AND LEFT BEHIND IN THE GULLIES AND THE HILLS WITH THE DEAD WONDERED. AS THE SOUTHERN UNIT WENT ADERA MORE THAN 1600 HAD BEEN LOST. DOWN STREAM ON THAT JULY 4 THE SOUTH SUFFERED ANOTHER BLOW, A CONFEDERATE GARRISON THERE SURRENDERED. GENERAL FREDERICK STEAL ARRIVED IN HELENA A FEW WEEKS LATER AND TOOK COMMAND OF ALL FORCES IN THE STATE. LITTLE ROCK WAS STILL THE OBJECTIVE. HE BEGAN THE LITTLE ROCK CAMPAIGN IN ARGUE. THERWERE ENGAGEMENTS AT S LO [INAUDIBLE] AND ON SEPTEMBER 11 THE UNION ARMY MARCHED INTO TOWN LEAD BY THE THIRD MINNESOTA AFTER A 40 DAY CAMPAIGN. AN INTERPRETIVE PANEL MARKS THE SPOT IN A MARK NEAR LITTLE ROCK RIVER'S MARKET. LATER MEN OF THE THIRD MINNESOTA WOULD POSE WITH A PHOTOGRAPH IN FRONT OF THE STATE CAPITOL. ISAAC MURPHY WAS INSTALLED AS T RNMOVED HERE TO WASHINGTON AND SOUTHWEST ARKANSAS AND THE COURTHOUSE BECAME ITS NEW CAPITOL. MEANWHILE IN BATESVILLE ELVENA MAXFIELD WAS STILL WRITING IN THAT DIARY.

NEARLY FOUR YEARS SINCE THE WAR BEGAN. THINGS LOOK GLOOMY. WHEN WILL THIS WAR BE OVER, U WASHINGTON DOWN WAS IN LITTLE ROCK THEN AND WROTE HIS CENTER ON JANUARY 2.

THEY SAY ANOTHER SPY WILL BE HUNG NEXT FRIDAY. I DON'T LIKE TO SEE MEN HUNG BUT I BELIEVE IT'S RIGHT TO HANG SPIES AND THEY MIGHT BE THE MEANS FOR KILLING THOUSANDS.

THIS IS THE GREAT FOR THAT IN THE CEMETERY. THIS BOY WAS HANG AT 17 AND WAS KNOWN AS THE BOY SERVICE FOR DODD.

I PRAY THAT WE MEET IN OFEN. GOD WILL BLESS YOU ALL. DAVID.

OH I WISH I WAS IN THE LAND OF COTTON, OH TIMES THERE ARE NOT FORGOTTEN. LOOK AWAY, LOOK AWAY, LOOK DIXIE LAND. IT'S DIXIE LAND WHERE I WAS BORN. ..

THE ARKANSAS LOUISIANA. IN 1864 IT WAS THE AVENUE FOR A BIG MILITARY CAMPAIGN BY UNION TROOPS HEADED TOWARDS TEXAS. THE GOAL WAS COTTON. TEXTILE MILL WERE RUNNING SHORT AS THE WAR ENTERED ANOTHER YEAR. THE GENERAL WAS TO MOVE DOWN HIS TROOPS AND LINK UP WITH ANOTHER ARMY IN SHREVEPORT.

LITTLE ROCK ARKANSAS. DR. SISTER TILLY -- WROTE TOME AGAIN. HE WAS A PREACHER'S BOY AND IT'S SUNDAY.

I HAVEN'T BEEN TO CHURCH TODAY BUT THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT WE WILL LEAVE FOR RED RIVER. GIVE ME LOVE TO ALL. I REMAIN YOUR AFFECTIONATE BROTHER.

THE TROOPS D OUT ON MARCH 23. HARRIET BAILEY BOLOCK APLANTATION NEAR EN THEY ARA.

ABOUT THAT MORNING 20-30 SOLDIERS TURNED IN AT THE BIG GATE. WE KNEW THEY WERE JAIRCHGIES AND HOW WELL GROOMED THEY LOOKED FROM THE TROOPS THAT WE JUST LEFT.

AT THE FIRST SERIOUS FIGHTING OF THE CAMPAIGN THE TROOPS MASSED IN FRONT OF THE WASHINGTON AND THE TWO SIDES CONFRONTED EACH OTHER FOR A AND A POSSIBILITY OF RESUPPLY AND SO IN HIS DIARY ON APRIL 15, JOHN W BROWN, A CAMDEN SLAVE OWNER MADE THE FOLLOWING ENTRY.

THE AWFUL DAY OF ALL DAYS, THE EVENT DREADED FOR YEARS AND OVER TAKEN US. ABOUT 6:00 O'CLOCK AN ARMY INFURIATED WITH HUNGER CAME DOWN THE STREETS AND SWORDS AND BINETS DEMANDED FOOD AND I CAVE EVERYTHING OUT THAT WAS COOKED.

IT'S THE ANNUAL DAFFODIL FESTIVAL IN CAMDEN AND A DEMONSTRATION IS APPROPRIATE BECAUSE THE CIVIL WAR FORTS AROUND CAMDEN WERE DESIGNED FOR ARTILLERY.

FIRE.

BUT OUEDO COOPERATE AND THEY REACH THE ARMY BUT THE WAGONS WERE AT HIS DISPOSAL AND SENT TO COLLECT CORN AND ANY OTHER FOOD THAT COULD BE FOUND. THE WAGONS WERE ESCORTED BY 1100 MEN AND THE FIRST COLORED INFANTRY. THE COMMANDER AND MEN OF THE MEN WERE RUN AWAY SLAVES FROM ARKANSAS. BLACK SOLDIERS WERE STILL A NOVELTY IN THE STATE SLAVES.R

THERE WERE MOST COLORED AND FIVE YANKEE SOLDIERS COME. I WAS NEVER SO SCAREED IN MY LIFE. THE COLORED SOLDIERS WERE SO TALL AND BLACK AND HAD RED EYES. WE WERE SURE AFRAID OF THEM, THEM EYES. OUACHITA COUNTY.

IN 1864 THE WAGON TRAIN WAS HEADED BACK TO CAMDEN. STRUGGLING UP TO MEET AND A BRI CHOCTAW INDIANS. THEY SPRANG THE TROOP AND THEY WERE DOOMED. UNDER THE SPRING FOLIAGE SCENES OF HORROR.

SEE THE NEGROES FIGHTING THE INDIANS AND I NEVER EXPECTED TO SEE SO MANY DEAD AND YOU COULD STEP ON THEM.

ANOTHER UNION WAGON TRAIN SET OUT FROM CAMDEN, THIS ONE SET FOR BA ON APRIL 25 THE TRAIN WAS NEAR MARKS MILLS SO IS GENERAL JAMES FAIGON AND 2500 TROOPS AND THEY ATTACKED AND CAPTURED THE WHOLE THING AND MOST OF THE ESCORT TAKING 1300 PRISONERS. THE RIVER AT JENKINS FERRY BETWEEN LITTLE ROCK AND PROVIDED AN ESCAPE FOR SOUTH ARKANSAS. STEEL'S YOFSUION ARM COULD GET THERE BEFORE THE CONFEDERATE AND GET ACROSS THERE WAS SAFETY ON THE OTHER SIDE. A DESPERATE RACE BEGAN. IT RAINED AND PORED AND 48 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS RAIN BUT THE UNION ARMY DID REACH THE AREA BEFORE THE CONFEDERATES AND FOUGHT TO DEFEND IT. IT OCCURRED IN SOME OF THE WORST CONDITIONS OF ANY CIVIL WAR BATTLE. TROOPS ON BOTH SIDES WERE IN WATER UP TO .

[INAUDIBLE] WENT IN AND SHOT DEAD. ONE OF OUR COLOR GUARDS WAS WOUNDED AT THE SAME TIME.

AN IOWA SOLDIER ANGWISHED SHOT LEAVING HIM LIKE A DOG TO DIE.

IN THE CIVIL WAR THEY ACTUALLY BIT THE BULLET AND HAPPENS AT JENKINS FERRY AND THEY WERE HURTING SO BAD THEY DIDN'T HAVE ANYTHING TO TAKE AND LITERALLY CHEW THE BULLETS. I HAVE ONE FLATTENED OUT HERE AND STARTED REGULAR SIZE AND ENDED UP A FLAT PIECE OF LEAD.

GEORGE WASHINGTON TOWN WAS SHOT IN THE FACE AND LEFT ON THE FIELE PRISONER. FIRES WERE LIT TO HELP THE TROOP GET OUT AND THE RAIN STOPPED. THIS SOLDIER SUMMED UP THE CAMPAIGN.

GONE 46 DAYS AND HAD 40 FIGHT AND CORN FOR DAND NOTHING FOR TWO DAYS AND HAD TO RETREAT FOR THE FIRST TIME.

THIS IS SOUTH OF LAKE E DIBY REALIZE THIS IS THE SITE OF THE LAST SIGNIFICANT CIVIL WAR BATTLE IN ARKANSAS IN 1864. THERE IS A HIGHWAY MARKER TO EXPLAIN IT. WHAT BUSH WACKING CONTINUED AND THIS MAN WAS CHARGED WITH THESE DEATHS.

THE HOUR OF -- [INAUDIBLE] T TO KEEP IT AND ME AS ONE I THAT LOVES YOU SO I SCRIBE MY NAME FOR THE LAST TIME [INAUDIBLE]

THEY WERE IN THE WAGONS AND FROM THE COFFINS AND THE EXECUTION PLACE WAS THREE QUARTERS OF A MILE. SOLDIERS AND CITIZENS LINED THE ROADS AND IT WAS DONE. FOUR LIFELESS BODIES BY THEIR COFFINS. JULY 29, 1864.

CONFEDERATE GENERALSTERRING PRICE, A FORMER GOVERNOR OF MISSOURI HAD HOPES OF LIBERATING THE STATE AND LAUNCHED HIS INVASION THEN AND MARCHED OUT OF POCAHONTAS AND OUT OF ST. LOUIS AND CONFISCATE SUPPLIES AND HE GOT TO OWN AND ATTACK UNION KNOB. THE TROOPS TOOK REFUGE IN A FORTHWITH GUNS AND WERE ON OPEN GROUND INCLUDING LARKIN BUNCH. MEN WENT DOWN BY THE HUNDREDS BUT COULDN'T SWEEP OVER THE FORTS AND THE RAID WAS IN TROUBLE. HE WAS CONFRONTED ABOUT A MONTH LATER IN WESTERN MISSOURI AND VIRTUALLY DESTROYED AS A FIGHTING FORCE. FRANKLIN SEF LT UP THIS ROAD IN THE FALL OF 1864. PATRICK CLEBURNE CAME WITH THEM. CROSSED 2 MILES OF OPEN GROUND TO REACH THE UNION WORKS.

HE SAID WELL UNION IT DOESN'T LOOK LIKE MANY OF US GOING TO MAKE IT BACK TO ARKANSAS WITH THIS FIGHT AND CLEBURNE'S RESPONSE WAS "IF WE ARE TO DIE LET US DIE LIKE MEN".

STE BATTLE OCCURRED HERE AND THE HOME HAS BULLET HOLES STILL. IT'S POSSIBLE THEY RESULTED FROM TRIGGER PULLS OF ARKANSAS CONFEDERATES. THE CARTER [INAUDIBLE] IS DOWN THE STREET AND THEY HEADED TOWARD THAT.

AS IT COLLAPSED AND THE RACE AND CONFEDERATES GO TO THE CENTER WITH THE REBEL YELL AND 80-YARDS IN FRONT AND ABOVE THE HEDGE WHEN AN ARTILLERY SHELL SHUFT DISEMBOWELED THE HORSE AND THE SECOND HORSE WENT DOWN AND NOW ON FOOT LIKE A LEADER AND DISAPPEARS IN SMOKE AND 40-50-YARDS AND WHERE THE BLUE HOUSE IS AND JUST UNDER HIS HEART AND PROBABLY DIED INSTANTLY.

CLEBURNE'S BODY WAS BROUGHT THAT TIME HE ACHIEVED A BRILLIANT MILITARY RECORD AND ONE OF THE BEST GENERALS IN THE WEST. THE CONFEDERATE CEMETERY AT FRANKLIN CONTAINS MANY OF THESE BODIES AND THEY MARCHED TOGETHER, ATE TOGETHER AND DIED TOGETHER AND NOW BUOGIN 1870 CLEBURNE'S BODY WAS BROUGHT HOME TO ARKANSAS AND TO HELENA TO THE CONFEDERATE CEMETERY.

TRULY A HERO THAT WILL ALWAYS STAND THE TEST OF TIME.

AND THIS STEAM BOAT ALSO SHOULD STANTHE TEST OF TIME. SULTANA WAS PHOTOGRAPHED AT HELENA JUST HOURS BEFORE IT ME THEIR WAY HOME THAT WERE PRISONERS OF WAR DIED. ONE WITNESS SAID VICTIMS CLUNG TO THE RAILING UNTIL THEY WERE SINGED OFF LIKE FLIES. THE TRAGEDY IN NORTHEAST ARKANSAS REMAINS ONE OF AMERICA'S WORSE MARITIME DISASTERS BUT THE NATION SURVIVED THE CIVIL WAR AND IT FINALLY CAME TO AN END IN 1865. SLAVERY BEANTHE UNITED STAT AMERICA BUT THE COST WAS HORRIFIC. MORE THAN 60,000 SOLDIERS DIED AND 10,000 IN ARKANSAS. THIS IS A CEMETERY IN NEWTON COUNTY AND A PLAQUE FOR LARKIN BUNCH NEAR THE GRAVE OF HIS WIFE. IT INDICATTH ARE NOT HERE. THEY'RE STILL IN THE BATTLEFIELD IN MISSOURI AND GEORGE WASHINGTON TOWN DIDN'T RETURN HOME EITHER AND DIED OF HIS WOUNDS AND BURIED IN LITTLE ROCK. MEN THAT WENT FAR AWAY WHERE THEY REMAIN EVEN UNTIL TODAY. THIS IS JACK HILL REPORTING FROM ARKANSAS.